OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2007
  • pp: 6142–6150

Optical properties of micrometer size water droplets studied by cavity ringdown spectroscopy

S. Rudić, R. E. H. Miles, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 24, pp. 6142-6150 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1043 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical extinction by homogeneous, pure water droplets of 30 to 70 μ m diameter produced by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator has been studied by pulsed cavity ringdown (CRD) spectroscopy at λ = 560   nm under ambient conditions. Experimental sensitivity of better than 1% achieved in measurements of CRD times enabled detection of changes in laser light losses per pass due to changes in the number and size of particles within the laser beam volume. By systematically changing the droplet size in the cavity while recording the CRD time, a periodic modulation in the value of the loss per pass was observed. The modulation is caused by the oscillatory nature of the extinction efficiency, which was subsequently inferred and compared with the results of theoretical calculations based on Mie theory.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1100) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosol detection
(010.1110) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosols
(010.1310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric scattering
(290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
(300.6360) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, laser

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: May 14, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: June 25, 2007
Published: August 14, 2007

S. Rudić, R. E. H. Miles, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, "Optical properties of micrometer size water droplets studied by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 6142-6150 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds., Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001). [PubMed]
  2. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998). [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Kjelaas, P. E. Nordal, and A. Bjerkestrand, "Scintillation and multiwavelength coherence effects in a long-path laser absorption spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 17, 277-284 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Bertolotti, M. Carnevale, and D. Sette, "Atmospheric extinction measurements of a He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 17, 285-288 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Durry and G. Megie, "In situ measurements of H2O from a stratospheric balloon by diode laser direct-differential absorption spectroscopy at 1.39 μm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5601-5608 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. W. Widada, H. Kuze, Y. Xue, K. Maeda, and N. Takeuchi, "Long-path monitoring of atmospheric aerosol extinction with an automated laser positioning system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 546-550 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Aerosol absorption measurements using photoacoustic spectroscopy: sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697-708 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. A. D. Sappey, E. S. Hill, T. Settersten, and M. A. Linne, "Fixed-frequency cavity ringdown diagnostic for atmospheric particulate matter," Opt. Lett. 23, 954-956 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, "A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol," Analyst 126, 1216-1220 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Moosmüller, R. Varma, and W. P. Arnott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity-enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Vander Wal and T. M. Ticich, "Cavity ringdown and laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot," Appl. Opt. 38, 1444-1451 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. A. W. Strawa, R. Elleman, A. G. Hallar, D. Covert, K. Ricci, R. Provencal, T. W. Owano, H. H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, A. P. Luu, K. Bokarius, and E. Andrews, "Comparison of in situ aerosol extinction and scattering coefficient measurements made during the aerosol intensive operating period," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S03, doi: (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. B. A. Richman, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, and A. A. Strawa, "Novel detection of aerosols: combined cavity ring-down and fluorescence spectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 3376-3387 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. V. Bulatov, Y. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, "Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ringdown technique," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155-160 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. T. J. A. Butler, J. L. Miller, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. I. The effect of position of a particle within the laser beam on extinction," J. Chem. Phys. 126, 174302 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. L. Miller and A. J. Orr-Ewing, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. II. Extinction of light by an aerosol particle in an optical cavity excited by a cw laser," J. Chem. Phys. 126, 174303 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Naus, W. Ubachs, P. F. Levelt, O. L. Polyansky, N. F. Zobov, and J. Tennyson, "Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy on water vapor in the range 555-604 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 205, 117-121 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. "Model 3450 Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator-Instruction Manual" (TSI Incorporated, Shoreview, MN, USA).
  25. Lord Rayleigh, "On the instability of jets," Proc. London Math. Soc. s1-10, 4-12 (1878). [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Schneider and C. D. Hendricks, "Source of uniform-sized liquid droplets," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1349-1350 (1964). [CrossRef]
  27. R. J. Hopkins and J. P. Reid, "A comparative study of the mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating ethanol/water, methanol/water, and 1-propanol/water aerosol droplets," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3239-3249 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. M. Sayer, R. D. B. Gatherer, R. J. J. Gilham, and J. P. Reid, "Determination and validation of water droplet size distributions probed by cavity enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 3732-3739 (2003). [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited