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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2007
  • pp: 6232–6236

Developments on standoff detection of explosive materials by differential reflectometry

Claus Schöllhorn, Anna M. Fuller, Julien Gratier, and Rolf E. Hummel  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 25, pp. 6232-6236 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.006232


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Abstract

Differential reflectometry (DR) is an effective tool to supplement existing explosives detection systems thus making the combined unit more effective than one tool alone. It is an optical technique in which the light beam (UV) emanates from an extended distance onto the substance under investigation, thus rendering it to be a standoff method. DR allows the measurement of the energies that electrons absorb from photons as they are raised into higher, allowed energy states. These electron transitions serve as a “fingerprint” for identifying substances. The device can be made portable; it is fast, safe for the public, does not require human involvement, is cost effective, and most of all, does not require ingestion of a suspicious substance into an instrument. Various embodiments are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(260.7190) Physical optics : Ultraviolet

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 30, 2007
Revised Manuscript: June 12, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: June 22, 2007
Published: August 22, 2007

Citation
Claus Schöllhorn, Anna M. Fuller, Julien Gratier, and Rolf E. Hummel, "Developments on standoff detection of explosive materials by differential reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 46, 6232-6236 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-25-6232


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References

  1. J. Yinon and S. Zitrin, The Analysis of Explosives, Vol. 3 (Pergamon, 1981).
  2. S. D. Huang, L. Kolaitis, and D. Lubman, "Detection of explosives using laser desorption on ion mobility mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1371-1376 (1987). [CrossRef]
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  5. J. Federici, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, "Standoff sensing of explosives using terahertz radiation," Am. Lab. 38, 28-33 (2006).
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  7. R. E. Hummel, A. Fuller, C. Schoellhorn, and P. Holloway, "Detection of explosive materials by differential reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1903-1905 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Hummel, "Differential reflectance spectroscopy in analysis of surfaces," Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2000), pp. 9047-9071.
  9. R. E. Hummel, "Differential reflectometry and its application to the study of alloys, ordering, corrosion, and surface properties," Phys. Status Solidi A 76, 11-44 (1983). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Enderlein, R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, R. J. Nastasi-Andrews, and C. W. Shanley, "Interpretation of compositional modulation spectra to determine some optical-properties of alloys," Phys. Status Solidi B 88, 173-178 (1978). [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Hummel, Electronic Properties of Materials, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

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