OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2007
  • pp: 6314–6322

Optical axis perturbation in folded planar ring resonators

Jie Yuan, Xingwu Long, Bin Zhang, Fei Wang, and Hongchang Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 25, pp. 6314-6322 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.006314


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1200 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A mathematical model of a four-sided folded planar ring resonator is established. The model can be modified into a triangular ring resonator, a square ring resonator, and a four-sided folded ring resonator, all of which are widely used for ring laser gyroscopes by changing certain design parameters such as incident angle Ai and side ratio H. By use of the extended matrix formulation, the optical axis perturbation, including optical axis decentration and optical axis tilt, in those planar ring resonators is analyzed in detail resulting in some novel findings. It has been determined that the longer the mirror radius, the larger the mode volume, the higher the sensitivity of optical axis decentration and the lower the sensitivity of optical axis tilt. The same mirror misalignment value, mostly the misalignment induced by optical axis decentration in the x and y components, has the conventional ratio of 1: [ cos ( A i ) ] 2 for the symmetrical points of the resonator. Details of the effect of Ai and H on the optical axis tilt have also been determined. The difference in optical axis tilt between different kinds of ring resonator is disclosed. The sensitivity of optical axis tilt was found to undergo singular rapid change along with the right edge of the second stable area. This singular behavior is useful for those resonators that have a small incident angle, such as A i = 15 ° , because those resonators have a second stable region. These interesting findings are important for cavity design, cavity improvement, and alignment of planar ring resonators.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3370) Lasers and laser optics : Laser gyroscopes
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3560) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ring
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 2, 2007
Revised Manuscript: June 4, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 13, 2007
Published: August 24, 2007

Citation
Jie Yuan, Xingwu Long, Bin Zhang, Fei Wang, and Hongchang Zhao, "Optical axis perturbation in folded planar ring resonators," Appl. Opt. 46, 6314-6322 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-25-6314


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, "The ring laser gyro," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61-86 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Andringa, "Laser gyroscope," U. S. patent 3,741,657 (26 June 1973).
  3. G. E. Stedman, "Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615-688 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Siegman, "Laser beams and resonators: the 1960s," IEEE J. Special Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 100-110 (1999).
  5. J. A. Arnaud, "Degenerate optical cavities. II. Effect of misalignments," Appl. Opt. 8, 1909-1917 (1969).
  6. G. B. Altshuler, E. D. Isyanova, V. B. Karasev, A. L. Levit, V. M. Ovchinnikov, and S. F. Sharlai, "Analysis of misalignment sensitivity of ring laser resonators," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 857-859 (1977). [CrossRef]
  7. I. W. Smith, "Optical resonator axis stability and instability from first principles," in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors I, E. L. Moore and O. G. Ramer, eds., Proc. SPIE 412, 203-206 (1983).
  8. A. L. Levit and V. M. Ovchinnikov, "Stability of a ring resonator with a nonplane axial contour," J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 657-660 (1984). [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Sheng, "Optical-axis perturbation singularity in an out-of-plane ring resonator," Opt. Lett. 19, 683-685 (1994).
  10. A. H. Paxton and W. H. Latham, Jr., "Ray matrix method for the analysis of optical resonators with image rotation," in 1985 International Lens Design Conference, D. T. Moore and W. H. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 554, 159-163 (1985).
  11. A. H. Paxton and W. P. Latham, Jr., "Unstable resonators with 90° beam rotation," Appl. Opt. 25, 2939-2946 (1986).
  12. R. Rodloff, "A laser gyro with optimized resonator geometry," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 438-445 (1987). [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Bilger and G. E. Stedman, "Stability of planar ring lasers with mirror misalignment," Appl. Opt. 26, 3710-3716 (1987).
  14. M. L. Stitch and M. Bass, eds., Laser Handbook (North-Holland, 1985), Vol. 4, Chap. 3, pp. 229-332.
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Chap. 15.
  16. A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction of Matrix Methods in Optics (Wiley, 1975).
  17. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998), translated by D. C. Hanna.
  18. J. Yuan, X. W. Long, L. M. Liang, B. Zhang, F. Wang, and H. C. Zhao, "Nonplanar ring resonator modes: generalized Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 2980-2989 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited