OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 2007
  • pp: 6595–6605

Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses

Sverker Norrby, Patricia Piers, Charles Campbell, and Marrie van der Mooren  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 26, pp. 6595-6605 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1396 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In accordance with the present international standard for intraocular lenses (IOLs), their imaging performance should be measured in a model eye having an aberration-free cornea. This was an acceptable setup when IOLs had all surfaces spherical and hence the measured result reflected the spherical aberration of the IOL. With newer IOLs designed to compensate for the spherical aberration of the cornea there is a need for a model eye with a physiological level of spherical aberration in the cornea. A literature review of recent studies indicated a fairly high amount of spherical aberration in human corneas. Two model eyes are proposed. One is a modification of the present ISO standard, replacing the current achromat doublet with an aspheric singlet cut in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The other also has an aspheric singlet cut in PMMA, but the dimensions of it and the entire model eye are close to the physiological dimensions of the eye. They give equivalent results when the object is at infinity, but for finite object distances only the latter is correct. The two models are analyzed by calculation assuming IOLs with different degrees of asphericity to elucidate their sensitivity to variation and propose tolerances. Measured results in a variant of the modified ISO model eye are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(170.4470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmology
(350.4800) Other areas of optics : Optical standards and testing

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: October 16, 2006
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 18, 2007
Published: September 7, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Sverker Norrby, Patricia Piers, Charles Campbell, and Marrie van der Mooren, "Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses," Appl. Opt. 46, 6595-6605 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. ISO 11979-2, Ophthalmic implants--Intraocular lenses--Part 2: optical properties and test methods (International Organization for Standardization, 1999).
  2. N. E. S. Norrby, "Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses," Appl. Opt. 34, 7327-7333 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Gullstrand, "The dioptrics of the eye," in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 1924), Vol. 1, pp. 351-352.
  4. H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Leopold Voss, 1867), pp. 8and142.
  5. W. Lotmar, "Theoretical eye model with aspherics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1522-1529 (1971). [CrossRef]
  6. H. L. Liou and N. A. Brennan, "The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 348-354 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. L. Liou and N. A. Brennan, "Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684-1695 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Dubbelman and G. L. van der Heijde, "The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index, and the lens paradox," Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Dubbelman, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, "The thickness of the aging human lens obtained from corrected Scheimpflug images," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 411-416 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, "Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Dubbelman, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, "Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation," Vision Res. 45, 117-132 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Norrby, "The Dubbelman eye model analyzed by ray tracing through aspheric surfaces," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 25, 153-161 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, "The mean shape of the human cornea," Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982). [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, "A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683-691 (2002). [PubMed]
  15. L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, "Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Bellucci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, "Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five different intraocular lenses," J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004). [PubMed]
  17. A. Guirao, J. Tejedor, and P. Artal, "Corneal aberrations before and after small-incision cataract surgery," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4312-4319 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).
  19. A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, "Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1697-1702 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Dubbelman, V. A. D. P. Sicam, and G. L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. LeGrand, Form and Space, translated by M. Millodot and G. G. Heath (Indiana U. Press, 1967).
  22. G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, "Optical performance of 3 intraocular lens designs in the presence of decentration," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574-585 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Norrby, P. Artal, P. A. Piers, and M. van der Mooren, inventors, Pharmacia Groningen BV, assignee, "Methods of obtaining ophthalmic lenses providing the eye with reduced aberrations," U.S. patent 6,609,793 (26 August 2003).
  24. U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, "Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 652-660 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. G. E. Altmann, inventor: Bausch & Lomb, Inc., assignee, "Lens-eye model and method for predicting in vivo lens performance," U.S. patent 6,626,535 (30 September 2003).
  26. T. Olsen, H. Olesen, K. Thim, and L. Corydon, "Prediction of pseudophakic anterior chamber depth with the newer IOL calculation formulas," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 18, 280-285 (1992).
  27. M. H. van der Mooren, H. A. Weeber, and P. A. Piers, "Verification of the average cornea eye ACE model," poster 309 presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 30 April-4 May 2006.
  28. B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Guided light and diffraction model of human-eye photoreceptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2318-2328 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, "Design and performance of customized IOLs," J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374-384 (2007). [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited