OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 27 — Sep. 20, 2007
  • pp: 6793–6803

Direct bonding and beyond

Jan Haisma, Nico Hattu, J. T. C. M. (Dook) Pulles, Esther Steding, and Jan C. G. Vervest  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 27, pp. 6793-6803 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.006793


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1842 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a number of recent evaluations of direct bonding, a glueless bonding technology, performed under ambient conditions. If combined with bond-strengthening, this geometry-conserving technology is well suited for an application in far ultraviolet immersion lithography. Our term beyond direct bonding refers to taking at least one additional technological step beyond direct bonding, involving chemical interface engineering, advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, whereby the unwanted influence of dilatation mismatch is obviated. The combination of successive direct bonding, nanopillar lattice structures and silicon-technological engineering makes it possible for us to arrange quantum dots, wires, and planes in a transversal cascade. We also address the interrelationship between direct bonding and elasticity, as well as plasticity; the latter is in relation to direct bonded glass wafers that are thermally treated to create the geometric shape, e.g., required for specific lab-on-a-chip components with a three-dimensional overall configuration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4610) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical fabrication
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: March 6, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 23, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: June 8, 2007
Published: September 19, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Jan Haisma, Nico Hattu, J. T. C. M. (Dook) Pulles, Esther Steding, and Jan C. G. Vervest, "Direct bonding and beyond," Appl. Opt. 46, 6793-6803 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-27-6793


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. Innys, Newton's Opticks: A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions and Colours, MDCCLXXX, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1931), p. 199.
  2. Lord Rayleigh, "A study of glass surfaces in optical contact," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 156, 326-349 (1936). [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Van der Waals, "Over de continuiteit van den gas-en vloeistoftoestand," Ph.D. dissertation (Sijthof, 1873) (in Dutch).
  4. F. Twijman and J. H. Dowell, "Improvements in or relating to length measurements by interferometer," U.K. patent 367,859 (26 February 1932).
  5. J. Haisma and S. J. Van Hoppe, "Laser comprising a block of insulating material containing a channel filled with gas," U.S. patent 3,387,226 (4 June 1968).
  6. K. Compaan and P. Kramer, "The Philips 'VLP' system," Philips Tech. Rev. 33, 178-180 (1973).
  7. J. B. Lasky, "Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78-80 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Shimbo, K. Furukawa, and K. Tanzawa, "Silicon-to-silicon direct bonding method," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2987-2989 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Haisma, Th. M. Michielsen, and J. A. Pals, "Method of manufacturing semiconductor devices," U.S. patent 4,983,251 (8 January 1991).
  10. U. Gösele, T. Abe, J. Haisma, and M. A. Schmidt, "Bond strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity," in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology and Applications (The Electrochemical Society Inc., 1992), Vol. 92-7.
  11. A. Plöszl and G. Kräuter, "Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. R. R25, 1-88 (1999).
  12. M. H. Vincken, ed., "Special issue on direct bonding," Philips J. Res. 49, 1-182 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor Wafer Bonding, Science and Technology, The Electrochemical Society (Wiley, 1999).
  14. J. Haisma and G. A. C. M. Spierings, "Contact bonding, including direct bonding in a historical and recent context of materials science and technology, physics and chemistry. Historical review in a broader scope and comparative outlook," Mater. Sci. Eng. R. R37, 1-60 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Alexe and U. Gösele, Wafer Bonding: Applications and Technology, Materials Science Series (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  16. J. Haisma and G. A. C. M. Spierings, "Surface-related phenomena in the direct bonding of silicon and fused silica wafer pairs," Philips J. Res. 49, 47-63 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Streefkerk, J. J. M. Baselmans, P. Graubner, J. Haisma, N. Hattu, Ch. A. Hoogendam, E. R. Loopstra, J. C. H. Mulkens, and B. Gellrich, "Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method," U.S. patent publication no. 2005/0110973 (26 May 2005).
  19. J. Haisma, F. J. H. M. Van der Kruis, G. A. C. M. Spierings, J. J. Baalbergen, B. H. Bijsterveld, R. Brehm, J. H. P. M. Faasen, J. J. C. Groenen, P. W. De Haas, T. B. J. Haddeman, T. M. Michielsen, and J. Vijfvinkel, "Improved geometry of double-sided polished parallel wafers prepared for direct bonding," Appl. Opt. 33, 7945-7954 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Nakamura, "Method of making a semiconductor device," U.S. patent 3,239,908 (15 March 1966).
  21. I. R. Cramer and C. F. Burrows, "Diffusion bonding," U.S. patent 3,256,598 (21 June 1966).
  22. R. P. Johnson, P. Del Rey, R. G. Shulman, and D. M. Van Winkle, "Monatomic semiconductor devices," U.S. patent 2,743,201 (24 April 1956).
  23. A. R. Krikpatrick, "Electrostatic bonding using externally applied pressure," U.S. patent 4,285,714 (25 August 1981).
  24. U. Gösele, "Method of manufacturing microstructures and also microstructure," U.S. patent 5,985,412 (16 November 1999).
  25. Ch. Batz-Sohn, G. Kräuter, and U. Gösele, "Process for joining two solid bodies and the resultant structural element," U.S. patent 6,190,778 (20 February 2001).
  26. D.-H. Gwo, "Ultra-precision bonding for cryogenic fused-silica optics," Proc. SPIE 3435, 136-142 (1998). [CrossRef]
  27. D.-H. Gwo, "Ultra-precision and reliable bonding method," U.S. patent 6,284,085 (4 September 2001).
  28. Y. Bäcklund, K. Hermansson, and L. Smith, "Bond strength measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity," in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology and Applications (The Electrochemical Society Inc., 1992), Vol. 92-7, p. 82. [PubMed]
  29. K. Ljungberg, A. Soderbarg, S. Bengtsson, and A. Jauhiainen, "Characterization of spontaneously bonded hydrophobic silicon surfaces," J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 562-566 (1994). [CrossRef]
  30. J. N. Isrealachvili, P. MacGuiggan, and R. Horn, "Basic physics of interactions between surfaces in dry, humid and aqueous environments," in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology and Applications (The Electrochemical Society Inc., 1992), Vol. 92-7, pp. 33-47.
  31. K. Ljungberg, A. Soderbarg, and U. Jansson, "Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4:H2O2: HF," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650-652 (1995). [CrossRef]
  32. Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, "Basics of interactions between flat surfaces," in Semiconductor Wafer Bonding, Science and Technology, The Electrochemical Society (Wiley, 1999), pp. 17-31.
  33. J. Bagdahn and M. Petzold, "Debonding of wafer-bonded interfaces for handling and transfer applications," in Wafer Bonding: Applications and Technology, Materials Science Series (Springer, 2004), pp. 473-494.
  34. E. Igata, M. Arundell, H. Morgan, and J. M. Cooper, "Interconnected reversible lab-on-a-chip technology," Lab. Chip 2, 65-69 (2002). [CrossRef]
  35. P. Müller and A. Paúl, "Elastic effects on surface physics," Surf. Sci. Rep. 54, 157-258 (2004). [CrossRef]
  36. M. Bruel, B. Aspar, and A.-J. Auberton-Hervé, "Smart-cut: a new silicon-on-insulator material technology based on hydrogen implantation and wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 36, 1636-1641 (1997). [CrossRef]
  37. Q.-Y. Tong, R. Scholz, U. Gösele, T.-H. Lee, L.-J. Huong, Y.-L. Chao, T. Y. Tan, "A 'Smarter-cut' approach to low temperature silicon layer transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 49-51 (1998). [CrossRef]
  38. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Nanoimprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995). [CrossRef]
  39. J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. Van den Heuvel, and J. Van den Berg, "Mold-assisted nanolithography: a process for reliable pattern replication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14, 4124-4128 (1996).
  40. J. Haisma, "Pillar-assisted stress-free silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3323-3325 (2003). [CrossRef]
  41. K. W. Guarini and H.-S. P. Wong, "Wafer bonding for high performance logic applications," in Wafer Bonding: Applications and Technology, Materials Science Series (Springer, 2004), Chap. 5, pp. 157-191.
  42. J. Haisma, "Nanoimprint lithography combined with direct bonding: a possibility to construct quantum dots, wires and planes in vertical cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 244105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  43. H. I. Liu, D. K. Biegelsen, N. M. Johnson, F. A. Ponce, and R. F. W. Pease, "Self-limiting oxidation of Si nanowires," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 2532-2537 (1993).
  44. Ch. T. Black, "Nonvolatile memory device using semiconductor nanocrystals and method of forming same," U.S. patent publication number 0256662 (23 December 2004).
  45. M. A. Schmidt, "Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation," Proc. IEEE 86, 1575-1585 (1998). [CrossRef]
  46. G. Wallis, "Application of field assisted bonding to the mass production of silicon type pressure transducers," U.S. patent 4,121,334 (February 18, 1978).
  47. J. Hess, H. Bo, R. Weber, I. Ortega, C. Barraud, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Bas, "Inhaler with ultrasonic wave nebulizer having nozzle openings superposed on peaks of a standing wafe pattern," European patent EP1,005,916A1 (1 December 1998).
  48. B. H. Weigl and K. Hedine, "Lab-on-a-chip-based separation and detection technology for life sciences," Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 20, 28-30 (2002).
  49. A. R. Kopf-Sill, A. W. Chow, L. Bousse, and C. B. Cohen, "Creating a lab-on-a-chip with microfluidic technologies," Integrated Microfabricated Biodevices, M. J. Heller and A. Guttman, eds. (Dekker, 2002), pp. 35-54.
  50. D. Figeys, "Adapting arrays and lab-on-a-chip technology for proteomics, a review," Proteomics 2, 373-382 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, "Lab-on-a-chip for drug development," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 55, 349-377 (2003). [CrossRef]
  52. P. S. Lay and E. P. H. Yap, "Biomems/'Lab-on-a-chip': towards a cheaper, more rapid, portable and automated high-throughput genotyping," in Frontiers in Human Genetics, Diseases and Technologies (World Scientific, 2001), pp. 53-72.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited