OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2007
  • pp: 7337–7344

Spectral reflectance and responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-photodiodes in the near-infrared: measurement and model

M. López, H. Hofer, K. D. Stock, J. C. Bermúdez, A. Schirmacher, F. Schneck, and S. Kück  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 29, pp. 7337-7344 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1898 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The spectral reflectance and responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-photodiodes at (nearly) normal and oblique incidence (45°) were investigated. The derived data allow a calculation of the photodiodes responsivities for any incident angle. The measurements were carried out with s- and p-polarized radiation in the wavelength range from 1260 to 1640   nm . The spectral reflectance of the photodiodes was modeled by using the matrix approach developed for thin-film optical assemblies. The comparison between the calculated and measured reflectance shows a difference of less than 2% for the Ge-photodiode. For the InGaAs-photodiode, the differences between measured and calculated reflectance are larger, i.e., up to 6% for wavelengths between 1380 and 1580   nm . Despite the larger differences between calculated and measured spectral reflectances for the InGaAs-photodiode, the difference between calculated and measured spectral responsivity is even smaller for the InGaAs-photodiode than for the Ge-photodiode, i.e., 1.2% for the InGaAs-photodiode compared to 2.2% for the Ge-photodiode. This is because the difference in responsivity is strongly correlated to the absolute spectral reflectance level, which is much lower for the InGaAs-photodiode. This observation also shows the importance of having small reflectances, i.e., appropriate antireflection coatings for the photodiodes. The relative standard uncertainty associated with the modeled spectral responsivity is about 2.2% for the Ge-photodiode and about 1.2% for the InGaAs-photodiode for any incident angle over the whole spectral range measured. The data obtained for the photodiodes allow the calculation of the spectral responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-trap detectors and the comparison with experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: June 8, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 31, 2007
Published: October 9, 2007

M. López, H. Hofer, K. D. Stock, J. C. Bermúdez, A. Schirmacher, F. Schneck, and S. Kück, "Spectral reflectance and responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-photodiodes in the near-infrared: measurement and model," Appl. Opt. 46, 7337-7344 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Gran, K. Ellingsberg, and A. S. Sudbø, "Establishing a high-accuracy spectral response scale in the near infrared with digital filters," Appl. Opt. 44, 2482-2489 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of InGaAs trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 37, 449-452 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of Ge trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 40, S163-S166 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Zwinkels, D. S. Gignac, M. Nevins, I. Powell, and A. Bewsher, "Design and testing of a two-monochromator reference spectrofluorimeter for high-accuracy total radiance factor measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 892-902 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, and A. R. Schaefer, "Spectral response self-calibration and interpolation of silicon photodiodes," Appl. Opt. 19, 3795-3799 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Haapalinna, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Spectral reflectance of silicon photodiodes," Appl. Opt. 37, 729-732 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. L.-P. Boivin, "Spectral responsivity of various types of silicon photodiode at oblique incidence: comparison of measured and calculated values," Appl. Opt. 40, 485-491 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Lamminpää, M. Noorma, T. Hyppä, F. Manoocheri, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of germanium photodiodes and trap detector," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 908-912 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IOP, 2001). [CrossRef]
  10. R. G. Hunsperger, Photonic Devices and Systems (Dekker, 1994).
  11. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optic, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, 1965), pp. 40, 632-633.
  12. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 465-478.
  13. S. Adachi, Physical Properties of III-V Semiconductor Compounds InP, InAs, GaAs, GaP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP (Wiley, 1992), pp 135-192. [CrossRef]
  14. S. B. Youssef, "Optical properties of Zn-doped InP single crystals," Physica A 235, 334-344 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Determination of thin-film parameters from high accuracy measurements of spectral regular transmittance," Metrologia 40, S200-S203 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. Shu-Chung Chiao, Bertrand G. Bovard, and H. A. Macleod, "Optical-constant calculation over an extended spectral region: application to titanium dioxide film," Appl. Opt. 34, 7355-7360 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Conradi, "Planar germanium photodiodes," Appl. Opt. 14, 1948-1952 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. M. Braun, "Design of single layer antireflection coatings for InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP photodetectors for the 1200-1600 nm wavelength range," Appl. Opt. 27, 2006-2011 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. López, H. Hofer, and S. Kück, "High accuracy measurement of the absolute spectral responsivity of Ge and InGaAs trap detectors by direct calibration against an electrically calibrated cryogenic radiometer in the near-infrared," Metrologia 43, 508-514 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. N. P. Fox, "Trap detectors and their properties," Metrologia 28, 197-202 (1991). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited