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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 2007
  • pp: 421–427

Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions

Ashley R. Carter, Gavin M. King, Theresa A. Ulrich, Wayne Halsey, David Alchenberger, and Thomas T. Perkins  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 421-427 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000421


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Abstract

Mechanical drift is a long-standing problem in optical microscopy that occurs in all three dimensions. This drift increasingly limits the resolution of advanced surface-coupled, single-molecule experiments. We overcame this drift and achieved atomic-scale stabilization ( 0.1   nm ) of an optical microscope in 3D. This was accomplished by measuring the position of a fiducial mark coupled to the microscope cover slip using back-focal-plane (BFP) detection and correcting for the drift using a piezoelectric stage. Several significant factors contributed to this experimental realization, including (i) dramatically reducing the low frequency noise in BFP detection, (ii) increasing the sensitivity of BFP detection to vertical motion, and (iii) fabricating a regular array of nanometer-sized fiducial marks that were firmly coupled to the cover slip. With these improvements, we achieved short-term ( 1   s ) stabilities of 0.11, 0.10, and 0.09   nm (rms) and long-term ( 100   s ) stabilities of 0.17, 0.12, and 0.35   nm (rms) in x, y, and z, respectively, as measured by an independent detection laser.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(170.4520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical confinement and manipulation
(170.6900) Medical optics and biotechnology : Three-dimensional microscopy
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: July 13, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: September 18, 2006
Published: January 4, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ashley R. Carter, Gavin M. King, Theresa A. Ulrich, Wayne Halsey, David Alchenberger, and Thomas T. Perkins, "Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions," Appl. Opt. 46, 421-427 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-3-421


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  22. The laser diode was driven by custom electronics that stabilized the temperature to ±15 mK/°C ambient temperature variation. The current stability of the driver was 25 ppm/°C. The manufacturer's specification of the laser diode's spectral linewidth is ∼0.5 nm FWHM.
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