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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 2007
  • pp: 7850–7857

Design of a panoramic annular lens with a long focal length

Shuang Niu, Jian Bai, Xi-yun Hou, and Guo-guang Yang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 32, pp. 7850-7857 (2007)

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A new method to improve the design of the panoramic annular lens (PAL) optical system with long focus is introduced. Cemented lenses are used in a PAL block to improve the design freedom. A multilayer diffractive optical element (MDOE) is used in relay optics to simplify the structure of the system and to increase diffractive efficiency of the design spectral range. The diffractive efficiency of MDOE in a wide spectral range is investigated theoretically. A seven piece PAL system with a total effective focal length of 10.8   mm is realized, and the diffractive efficiency of the whole design wavelength is above 99.3 % . A PAL system with all spherical surfaces is described as a comparison.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: August 6, 2007
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2007
Published: November 5, 2007

Shuang Niu, Jian Bai, Xi-yun Hou, and Guo-guang Yang, "Design of a panoramic annular lens with a long focal length," Appl. Opt. 46, 7850-7857 (2007)

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