OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 2007
  • pp: 8237–8243

Rapid characterization of the ultraviolet induced fiber Bragg grating complex coupling coefficient as a function of irradiance and exposure time

Gordon M. H. Flockhart, Geoffrey A. Cranch, and Clay K. Kirkendall  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 34, pp. 8237-8243 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.008237


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1707 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report the application of optical frequency domain reflectometry and a discrete-layer-peeling inverse scattering algorithm to the spatial characterization of the UV induced complex coupling coefficient during fiber Bragg grating growth. The fiber grating is rapidly characterized using this technique to give irradiance dependent growth as a function of exposure time, thereby providing the complete characterization of the coupling coefficient in the form of a “growth surface,” which is related to the fiber's photosensitivity. We compare measurements of fiber Bragg grating growth in SMF-28 when exposed to continuous wave 244   nm irradiation from 0 to 90   W   cm 2 for exposure times up to 3230 s with a selection of other fibers including high germanium concentration fiber and erbium doped fiber.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(060.3738) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity
(160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 25, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2007
Published: November 26, 2007

Citation
Gordon M. H. Flockhart, Geoffrey A. Cranch, and Clay K. Kirkendall, "Rapid characterization of the ultraviolet induced fiber Bragg grating complex coupling coefficient as a function of irradiance and exposure time," Appl. Opt. 46, 8237-8243 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-34-8237


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. C. R. Giles, "Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1391-1404 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, "New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating," Opt. Express 12, 5902-5909 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, "A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1419-1423 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Poladian, "Simple grating synthesis algorithm," Opt. Lett. 25, 787-789 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Skaar, L. G. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Skaar and O. H. Waagaard, "Design and characterization of finite-length fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1238-1245 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Skaar, "Synthesis and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings," Ph.D. dissertation (The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2000).
  13. J. A. Besley, L. Reekie, C. Weeks, T. Wang, and C. Murphy, "Grating writing model for materials with nonlinear photosensitive response," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2421-2428 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, "Modified F-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a novel nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2416-2427 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, G. A. Cranch, and E. J. Friebele, "Early index growth in germanosilicate fiber upon exposure to continuous wave ultraviolet light," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1034-1044 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption-band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass-fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369-371 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. Luna Technologies, "Optical Vector Analyzer CTe," http://www.lunatechnologies.com/products/ova/files/DATASHEET_OVACTe.pdf.
  19. G. M. H. Flockhart, G. A. Cranch, and C. K. Kirkendall, "Characterization of fiber Bragg grating growth using optical frequency domain reflectometry and layer-peeling," in Bragg Gratings, Poling & Photosensitivity/30th Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (BGPP/ACOFT) (2005), pp. 76-78.
  20. M. Froggatt, "Distributed measurement of the complex modulation of a photoinduced Bragg grating in an optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 35, 5162-5164 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. O. H. Waagaard, "Polarization-resolved spatial characterization of birefringent fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 14, 4221-4236 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Corning, "SMF-28e optical fiber product information," http://www.corning.com.
  23. H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, "Growth of Bragg gratings produced by continuous-wave ultraviolet-light in optical-fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1484-1486 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 108-115 (1998). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Canning, "The characteristic curve and site-selective laser excitation of local relaxation in glass," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9715-9719 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. LeConte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Progress in silica optical fibre photosensitivity," Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543-556 (1997).
  27. M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica," Phys. Rev. B 6414, 144201 (2001).
  28. Z. S. Hegedus, "Contact printing of Bragg gratings in optical fibers: rigorous diffraction analysis," Appl. Opt. 36, 247-252 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited