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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1009–1014

Ultralow-noise readout circuit with an avalanche photodiode: toward a photon-number-resolving detector

Kenji Tsujino, Makoto Akiba, and Masahide Sasaki  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 7, pp. 1009-1014 (2007)

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The charge-integration readout circuit was fabricated to achieve an ultralow-noise preamplifier for photoelectrons generated in an avalanche photodiode with linear mode operation at 77 K. To reduce the various kinds of noise, the capacitive transimpedance amplifier was used and consisted of low- capacitance circuit elements that were cooled with liquid nitrogen. As a result, the readout noise is equal to 3.0 electrons averaged for a period of 40   ms . We discuss the requirements for avalanche photodiodes to achieve photon-number-resolving detectors below this noise level.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.6040) Detectors : Silicon

Original Manuscript: May 2, 2006
Revised Manuscript: August 25, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 16, 2006
Published: February 12, 2007

Kenji Tsujino, Makoto Akiba, and Masahide Sasaki, "Ultralow-noise readout circuit with an avalanche photodiode: toward a photon-number-resolving detector," Appl. Opt. 46, 1009-1014 (2007)

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  27. When the avalanche process comes into play in a Si APD, the probability distribution usually deviates from a Gaussian shape, having a tail in the higher voltage side. Then standard deviation σ also includes the avalanche noise, and photon number discrimination based on the CIPD becomes impossible.

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