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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1019–1025

Simulation of photoacoustic imaging of microcracks in silicon wafers using a structure-changeable multilayered thermal diffusion model

Toshihiko Nakata, Takehiko Kitamori, and Tsuguo Sawada  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 7, pp. 1019-1025 (2007)

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The detection characteristics for photoacoustic imaging of microcracks in silicon wafers were theoretically and quantitatively investigated using a numerical simulation. The simulation is based on a one-dimensional multilayered thermal diffusion model coupled with the thermal-wave impedance of each layer, the layer structures of which are constructed along the wafer surface and are variable according to the scanning position of the point heat source. As the modulation frequency was reduced, the spatial resolution of the temperature amplitude profile at the cracks decreased, showing good agreement with the experimentally obtained photoacoustic amplitude images. At a modulation frequency of 200 kHz, for cracks with narrow air gaps of up to 20 nm , which is much smaller than both the beam spot size of 1.5 μm and the thermal diffusion length of 12 μm , the temperature amplitude is twice that of regions without cracks, and the temperature contrast increased with an increase in the modulation frequency. These calculation results suggest the effectiveness of using a high modulation frequency, making it possible to detect microcracks of the order of 10 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(110.5120) Imaging systems : Photoacoustic imaging
(120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy

Original Manuscript: June 9, 2006
Revised Manuscript: October 18, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 19, 2006
Published: February 12, 2007

Toshihiko Nakata, Takehiko Kitamori, and Tsuguo Sawada, "Simulation of photoacoustic imaging of microcracks in silicon wafers using a structure-changeable multilayered thermal diffusion model," Appl. Opt. 46, 1019-1025 (2007)

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