OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1401–1409

Active optics: single actuator principle and angular thickness distribution for astigmatism compensation by elasticity

Emmanuel Hugot, Gérard R. Lemaître, and Marc Ferrari  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 10, pp. 1401-1409 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (6259 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Active optics techniques providing high quality large astigmatism compensations to be used in a fixed or variable optical path, are presented in three ways: analytical calculations, finite element analysis, and experimental validation. The use of an angular thickness distribution allows improving the optical quality of toroidal deformations. We emphasize the case of a single actuator design, in which the principle is proven with a prototype.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(220.1250) Optical design and fabrication : Aspherics
(220.5450) Optical design and fabrication : Polishing
(220.1080) Optical design and fabrication : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: October 1, 2007
Revised Manuscript: December 28, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2008
Published: March 26, 2008

Emmanuel Hugot, Gérard R. Lemaître, and Marc Ferrari, "Active optics: single actuator principle and angular thickness distribution for astigmatism compensation by elasticity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1401-1409 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt. Hamburg Sternv. 7, 15 (1932).
  2. G. R. Lemaître, “New procedure for making Schmidt corrector plates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1630-1636 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Lubliner and J. E. Nelson, “Stressed mirror polishing. 1: a technique for producing nonaxisymmetric mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2332-2340 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Nelson, G. Gabor, L. K. Hunt, J. Lubliner, and T. S. Mast, “Stressed mirror polishing. 2: fabrication of an off-axis section of a paraboloid,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2341-2352 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).
  6. E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.
  7. L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. R. N. Wilson, “Active optics control systems,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 1999), pp. 274-314.
  9. G. R. Lemaître, P. Montiel, P. Joulié, K. Dohlen, and P. Lanzoni, “Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7322-7332 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 128, 221-227 (1998).
  11. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. R. N. Wilson, “Active optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).
  14. J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).
  15. J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323. [CrossRef]
  16. T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Rabou, “SPHERE common path optical design description,” VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0151, (2007).
  18. E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.
  20. G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).
  21. J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.
  22. F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).
  23. G. R. Lemaître, “Active optics: vase or meniscus multimode mirrors and degenerated configurations,” Meccanica 40, 233-249 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. M. C. Huber, E. Jannitti, G. R. Lemaître, and G. Tondello, “Toroidal grating obtained on an elastic substrate,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2139-2142 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. St Venant, Mmoires, Tome 14, p. 65.
  26. S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1959), p. 294.
  27. E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”
  28. F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”
  29. S. Kendrew, “Lightweight deformable mirrors for ground- and space-based imaging systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College London, 2005).
  30. E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, and M. Langlois, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&T CNES-SESO: evaluation des miroirs actifs pour les grands telescopes spatiaux” (Confidential study, 2006).
  31. E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited