OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1673–1683

Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser

Saša Bajt, Henry N. Chapman, Eberhard A. Spiller, Jennifer B. Alameda, Bruce W. Woods, Matthias Frank, Michael J. Bogan, Anton Barty, Sebastien Boutet, Stefano Marchesini, Stefan P. Hau-Riege, Janos Hajdu, and David Shapiro  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 10, pp. 1673-1683 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2013 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The camera consists of a laterally graded multilayer mirror, which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter for both the wavelength and the angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from nonsample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10 14 W / cm 2 . The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates onto a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beam stop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) FEL (i.e., between 6 and 60 nm ) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32, 16, 13.5, and 4.5 nm . At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH FEL with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
(040.1490) Detectors : Cameras
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(140.2600) Lasers and laser optics : Free-electron lasers (FELs)
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: October 24, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2008
Published: March 31, 2008

Saša Bajt, Henry N. Chapman, Eberhard A. Spiller, Jennifer B. Alameda, Bruce W. Woods, Matthias Frank, Michael J. Bogan, Anton Barty, Sebastien Boutet, Stefano Marchesini, Stefan P. Hau-Riege, Janos Hajdu, and David Shapiro, "Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser," Appl. Opt. 47, 1673-1683 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. J. Gaffney and H. N. Chapman, “Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering,” Science 316, 1444-1448 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D.Van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839-843 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210-1213 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao,. “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. 54, 232-239 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342-344 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 175501 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography (Academic, 1969).
  10. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stohr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885-888 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Neutze, R. Wouts, D. van der Spoel, E. Weckert, and J. Hajdu, “Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtoscond x-ray pulses,” Nature 406, 752-757 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms--a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758-2769 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101, (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, S. Marchesini, S. Miller, J. Spence, and U. Weirstall, “Toward a practical X-ray Fourier holography at high resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. A 467864-867 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. W. Ackermann, G. Asova, V. Ayvazyan, A. Azima, N. Baboi, J. Bähr, V. Balandin, B. Beutner, A. Brandt, A. Bolzmann, R. Brinkmann, O. I. Brovko, M. Castellano, P. Castro, L. Catani, E. Chiadroni, S. Choroba, A. Cianchi, J. T. Costello, D. Cubaynes, J. Dardis, W. Decking, H. Delsim-Hashemi, A. Delserieys, G. Di Pirro, M. Dohlus, S. Düsterer, A. Eckhardt, H. T. Edwards, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, K. Flöttmann, J. Frisch, L. Fröhlich, T. Garvey, U. Gensch, Ch.Gerth, M. Görler, N. Golubeva, H.-J. Grabosch, M. Grecki, O. Grimm, K. Hacker, U. Hahn, J. H. Han, K. Honkavaara, T. Hott, M. Hüning, Y. Ivanisenko, E. Jaeschke, W. Jalmuzna, T. Jezynski, R. Kammering, V. Katalev, K. Kavanagh, E. T. Kennedy, S. Khodyachykh, K. Klose, V. Kocharyan, M. Körfer, M. Kollewe, W. Koprek, S. Korepanov, D. Kostin, M. Krassilnikov, G. Kube, M. Kuhlmann, C. L. S. Lewis, L. Lilje, T. Limberg, D. Lipka, F. Löhl, H. Luna, M. Luong, M. Martins, M. Meyer, P. Michelato, V. Miltchev, W. D. Möller, L. Monaco, W. F. O. Müller, O. Napieralski, O. Napoly, P. Nicolosi, D. Nölle, T. Nuñez, A. Oppelt, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, N. Pchalek, J. Pedregosa-Gutierrez, B. Petersen, B. Petrosyan, G. Petrosyan, L. Petrosyan, J. Pflüger, E. Plönjes, L. Poletto, K. Pozniak, E. Prat, D. Proch, P. Pucyk, P. Radcliffe, H. Redlin, K. Rehlich, M. Richter, M. Roehrs, J. Roensch, R. Romaniuk, M. Ross, J. Rossbach, V. Rybnikov, M. Sachwitz, E. L. Saldin, W. Sandner, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, M. Schmitz, P. Schmüser, J. R. Schneider, E. A. Schneidmiller, S. Schnepp, S. Schreiber, M. Seidel, D. Sertore, A. V. Shabunov, C. Simon, S. Simrock, E. Sombrowski, A. A. Sorokin, P. Spanknebel, R. Spesyvtsev, L. Staykov, B. Steffen, F. Stephan, F. Stulle, H. Thom, K. Tiedtke, M. Tischer, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, D. Trines, I. Tsakov, E. Vogel, T. Weiland, H. Weise, M. Wellhöfer, M. Wendt, I. Will, A. Winter, K. Wittenburg, W. Wurth, P. Yeates, M. V. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov, and K.Zapfe, “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics 1, 336-342 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Marvin Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature 448, 676-679 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. J. Bogan, W. H. Benner, S. Boutet, U. Rohner, M. Frank, A. Barty, M. M. Seibert, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, B. Woods, V. Riot, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. Svenda, E. Marklund, E. Spiller, J. Hajdu, and H. N. Chapman, “Singe particle x-ray diffractive imaging,” Nano. Lett. 8, 310-316 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE,1994). [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 259-270 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Beetz, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, C. Kao, J. Kirz, E. Lima, T. Mentes, H. Miao, C. Sanchez-Hanke, D. Sayre, and D. Shapiro, “Apparatus for x-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. A 545, 459-468 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 6586-18 (2007).
  25. K. Yamashita, S. Takahashi, S. Kitamoto, S. Takahama, K. Tamura, I. Hatsukade, M. Sakurai, M. Watanabe, A. Yamaguchi, H. Nagata, and M. Ohtani, “Characterization of multilayer reflectors and position sensitive detectors in the 45-300 A° region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1513-1515 (1992). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Kondo, T. Ejima, K. Saito, T. Hatano, and M. Watanabe, “High-reflection multilayer for wavelength range of 200-30 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. A 467-468, 333-336 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. I. Yoshikawa, T. Murachi, H. Takenaka , and S.Icimaru, “Multilayer coating for 30.4 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 066109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, and C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786-1788 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Grigonis and E. J. Knystautas, “C/Si multilayer mirrors for the 25-30 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2839-2842 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Ejima, A. Yamazaki, T. Banse, K. Saito, Y. Kondo, S. Ichimaru, and H. Takenaka, “Aging and thermal stability of Mg-SiC and Mg-Y2O3 reflection multilayers in the 25-35 nm region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5446- 5453 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. I. Larruquert, “Reflectance enhancement in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x rays by means of multilayers with more than two materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 391-397 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 384-390 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998). [CrossRef]
  34. U. Hahn and K. Tiedtke, “The gas attenuator of FLASH at DESY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 276-282 (2007).
  35. E. Spiller and K.-B. Youn, “Studies towards optimization of ion polishing for multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 2011, 288-298 (1993). [CrossRef]
  36. P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from x-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. 62, 248-261 (2006). [CrossRef]
  37. See http://www-cxro.lbl.gov (reflectivity results by F. Salmassi and E. M. Gullikson,).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited