OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2008
  • pp: 1973–1980

Formation of all fourteen Bravais lattices of three-dimensional photonic crystal structures by a dual beam multiple-exposure holographic technique

Ashish Dwivedi, Jolly Xavier, Joby Joseph, and Kehar Singh  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 12, pp. 1973-1980 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (13953 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We make use of a dual beam multiple-exposure (DBME) holographic technique for the formation of all 14 Bravais lattices of three-dimensional photonic crystal microstructures. For simplicity of experimental implementation, the DBME method has been modified such that, prior to each exposure, once the proper angle between the wave vectors of the interfering beams is chosen, a single axis rotation of the recording medium gives the desired results. The parameters required for the generation of the lattice structures have been derived by appropriate modification of interference of four noncoplanar beams (IFNB) analysis for corresponding implementation in the DBME technique, and the results have been verified by computer simulations. After giving a comparative study of the results with the IFNB method, recording geometries for the DBME approach are also proposed in order to realize all 14 Bravais lattices experimentally.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 19, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: February 21, 2008
Published: April 10, 2008

Ashish Dwivedi, Jolly Xavier, Joby Joseph, and Kehar Singh, "Formation of all fourteen Bravais lattices of three-dimensional photonic crystal structures by a dual beam multiple-exposure holographic technique," Appl. Opt. 47, 1973-1980 (2008)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Photonic band-gap structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 283-295 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).
  3. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2005).
  4. P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley-Interscience, 2004). [CrossRef]
  5. J. -M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J .-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices (Springer, 2005).
  6. M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, “Holographic photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1973-1987 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Turberfield, “Photonic crystals made by holographic lithography,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 26, 632-636 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. V. Berger, O. Gauthier, and E. Costard, “Photonic bandgaps and holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, S. Blaya, R. Madrigal, and A. Fimia, “Multiplexed holographic gratings for fabricating 3-D photonic crystals in BB640 photographic emulsions,” Opt. Express 12, 2903-2908 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53-56 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, and Y. R. Wang, “What kind of Bravais lattices can be made by the interference of four umbrella beams?,” Opt. Commun. 224, 243-246 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yuan, G. P. Wang, and X. Huang, “Arrangement of four beams for any Bravais lattice,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1769-1771(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, and Y. R. Wang, “All fourteen Bravais lattices can be formed by interference of four noncoplanar beams,” Opt. Lett. 27, 900-902 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, and Y. R. Wang, “Formation of three- dimensional periodic microstructures by interference of four noncoplanar beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2238-2244(2002). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Yang, L. Cai, and Q. Liu, “Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrella like symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6894-6900 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. M. Su, Y. C. Zhong, X. Wang, X. G. Zheng, J. F. Xu, and H. Z. Wang, “Effects polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056619-1-056619-6(2003). [CrossRef]
  17. R. C. Gauthier and K. W. Mnaymneh, “Design of photonic band gap structures through a dual-beam multiple exposure technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 625-633 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, “Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional periodic structures by multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9605-9611 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Liu, S. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals with two-beam holographic lithography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 480-483 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman Group, 1984), pp. 268-269.
  21. V. Y. Miklyaev, C. D. Meisel, and A. Blanco, “Three dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited