OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2008
  • pp: 2004–2010

3 × 3 Mach–Zehnder interferometer with unbalanced differential detection for full-range swept-source optical coherence tomography

Youxin Mao, Sherif Sherif, Costel Flueraru, and Shoude Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 12, pp. 2004-2010 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.002004


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2329 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Quadrature interferometry based on 3 × 3 fiber couplers could be used to double the effective imaging depth in swept-source optical coherence tomography. This is due to its ability to suppress the complex conjugate artifact naturally. We present theoretical and experimental results for a 3 × 3 Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a new unbalanced differential optical detection method. The new interferometer provides simultaneous access to complementary phase components of the complex interferometric signal. No calculations by trigonometric relationships are needed. We demonstrate a complex conjugate artifact suppression of 27 dB obtained in swept-source optical coherence tomography using our unbalanced differential detection. We show that our unbalanced differential detection has increased the signal-to-noise ratio by at least 4 dB compared to the commonly used balanced detection technique. This is due to better utilization of optical power.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: August 14, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 14, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 21, 2008
Published: April 11, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Youxin Mao, Sherif Sherif, Costel Flueraru, and Shoude Chang, "3×3 Mach-Zehnder interferometer with unbalanced differential detection for full-range swept-source optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 47, 2004-2010 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-12-2004


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, “Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: a new optical evaluation technique,” Opt. Lett. , 12, 158-160 (1987).
  3. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, “New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1603-1606 (1987).
  4. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
  5. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
  6. M. A. Choma, M. V. Saranic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
  7. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and spectral radar--new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
  11. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13, 10523-10537 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhang, W. Jung, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 6033-6039 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12, 4822-4828 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 362-364 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3×3 fiber-optic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2162-2164 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time quadrature projection complex conjugate resolved Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2426-2428 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3×3 fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 13, 957-967 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Flueraru, H Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, L5-L8 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. , 241484-1486(1999).
  20. S. K. Sheem, “Optical fiber interferometers with [3×3] directional couplers: analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865-3872 (1981). [CrossRef]
  21. R. G. Priest, “Analysis of fiber interferometer utilizing 3×3 fiber coupler,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1589-1591 (1982). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513-3528 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited