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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2008
  • pp: C206–C213

Investigation of tin-based alternatives for cadmium in optoelectronic thin-film materials

Steven Wakeham, Gary Hawkins, Graham Henderson, and Nicholas Carthey  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 13, pp. C206-C213 (2008)

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Increasing legislation has steadily been introduced throughout the world to restrict the use of heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in high temperature pigments, ceramics, and optoelectronic material applications. Removal of cadmium from thin-film optical and semiconductor device applications has been hampered by the absence of viable alternatives that exhibit similar properties with stability and durability. We describe a range of tin-based compounds that have been deposited and characterized in terms of their optical and mechanical properties and compare them with existing cadmium-based films that currently find widespread use in the optoelectronic and semiconductor industries.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(240.0310) Optics at surfaces : Thin films
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.6188) Thin films : Spectral properties

Original Manuscript: July 30, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 5, 2007
Published: January 17, 2008

Steven Wakeham, Gary Hawkins, Graham Henderson, and Nicholas Carthey, "Investigation of tin-based alternatives for cadmium in optoelectronic thin-film materials," Appl. Opt. 47, C206-C213 (2008)

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