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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2008
  • pp: C98–C106

Charles Keith Carniglia (1944-2006): in memoriam

J. A. Dobrowolski  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 13, pp. C98-C106 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.000C98


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Abstract

Chuck Carniglia was an industrial scientist, an educator, and a friend to all he met. He had an important impact on the optical thin-film community. This article highlights his career and accomplishments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.1410) General : Biography
(000.5360) General : Physics literature and publications
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

History
Original Manuscript: September 7, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 13, 2007
Published: November 28, 2007

Citation
J. A. Dobrowolski, "Charles Keith Carniglia (1944-2006): in memoriam," Appl. Opt. 47, C98-C106 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-13-C98


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References

  1. A. Papers Published in Refereed Journals
  2. C. K. Carniglia and L. Mandel, "Differential phase shifts of T.E. and T.M. evanescent waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1423-1424 (1971).
  3. C. K. Carniglia and L. Mandel, "Phase shift measurement of evanescent electromagnetic waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1035-1043 (1971).
  4. C. K. Carniglia and L. Mandel, "Quantization of evanescent electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. D 3, 280-296 (1971).
  5. C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, and K. H. Drexhage, "Absorption and emission of evanescent photons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 479-486 (1972).
  6. P. R. Callary and C. K. Carniglia, "Internal reflection from an amplifying layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 775-779 (1976).
  7. C. K. Carniglia, "A correction to the theory of the Goos Haenchen shift by Lotsch," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1425 (1976).
  8. C. K. Carniglia and K. R. Brownstein, "The focal shift and the ray model for total internal reflection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 121-122 (1977).
  9. R. F. Cybulski Jr. and C. K. Carniglia, "Internal reflection from an exponential amplifying region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1620-1627 (1977).
  10. M. McGuirk and C. K. Carniglia, "An angular spectrum representation approach to the Goos-Haenchen shift," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 103-107 (1977).
  11. D. J. Rhodes and C. K. Carniglia, "Measurement of the Goos-Hanchen shift at grazing incidence using Lloyd's mirror," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 679-683 (1977).
  12. C. K. Carniglia, "Optics by W. T. Welford (book review)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 425 (1978).
  13. C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).
  14. C. K. Carniglia and J. H. Apfel, "Maximum reflectance of multilayer dielectric mirrors in the presence of slight absorption," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 523-534 (1980).
  15. C. K. Carniglia, "Oxide coatings for one micrometer laser fusion systems," Thin Solid Films 77, 225-238 (1981).
  16. D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Tuttle Hart, "Influence of deposition parameters on laser-damage threshold of silica-tantala AR coatings," Appl. Opt. 21, 3689-3694 (1982).
  17. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, and C. K. Carniglia, "Scandium oxide coatings for high-power UV laser applications," Appl. Opt. 21, 3685-3688 (1982).
  18. W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, and C. K. Carniglia, "Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985-987 (1983).
  19. D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, and T. F. Thonn, "Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials," Appl. Opt. 23, 3571-3596 (1984).
  20. J. Bartella, P. H. Berning, B. Bovard, C. K. Carniglia, E. Casparis, V. R. Costich, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, R. Herrmann, F. C. Ho, M. R. Jacobson, R. E. Klinger, J. A. Leavitt, H. G. Lotz, H. A. Macleod, M. J. Messerly, D. F. Mitchell, W. D. Muenz, K. W. Nebesny, R. Pfefferkorn, S. G. Saxe, D. Y. Song, P. Swab, R. M. Swenson, W. Thoeni, F. Van-Milligen, S. Vincent, and A. Waldorf, "Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating," Appl. Opt. 24, 2625-2646 (1985).
  21. R. E. Klinger and C. K. Carniglia, "Optical and crystalline inhomogeneity in evaporated zirconia films," Appl. Opt. 24, 3184-3187 (1985).
  22. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, "Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 24, 496-500 (1985).
  23. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, "Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques," Appl. Opt. 28, 3303-3317 (1989).
  24. C. K. Carniglia, "Comparison of several shortwave pass filter designs," Appl. Opt. 28, 2820-2823 (1989).
  25. C. K. Carniglia, K. N. Schrader, P. A. O'Connell, and S. R. Tuenge, "Refractive index determination using an orthogonalized dispersion equation," Appl. Opt. 28, 2902-2906 (1989).
  26. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2800-2805 (1989).
  27. C. K. Carniglia, "Ellipsometric calculations for nonabsorbing thin films with linear refractive-index gradients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 848-856 (1990).
  28. D. T. Jennings, L. F. DeLand, and C. K. Carniglia, "Development of an automated counter for egg masses of spruce budworms," U.S. Forest Service Technical Bulletin 1, 23 (1990).
  29. M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, and C. K. Carniglia, "Laser-fused refractory oxides for optical coatings," Mater. Sci. Eng. B B10, 241-246 (1991).
  30. M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, and C. K. Carniglia, "Optical and structural properties of thin films deposited from laser fused zirconia, hafnia, and yttria," Appl. Phys. A A54, 533-537 (1992).
  31. F. L. Williams, G. A. Peterson, Jr., C. K. Carniglia, and B. J. Pond, "In situ characterization of thin film defect generation using total internal reflection microscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10, 1472-1478 (1992).
  32. C. K. Carniglia, J. P. Black, S. E. Watkins, and B. J. Pond, "Direct observation of waveguided scattered light in multilayer dielectric thin films," Appl. Opt. 32, 5504-5510 (1993).
  33. K. C. Hickman, R. Wingler, F. L. Williams, C. E. Sobczak, C. K. Carniglia, C. F. Kranenberg, K. Jungling, J. R. McNeill, and J. P. Black, "Correlation between substrate preparation technique and scatter observed from optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 32, 3409-3415 (1993).
  34. H. A. Macleod and C. K. Carniglia, "Feature issue on optical interference coatings," Appl. Opt. 32, 5415-5416 (1993).
  35. J. P. Lehan and C. K. Carniglia, "Equivalent circuit model for large-area AC magnetron sputtering of dielectrics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 62-67 (1997).
  36. C. K. Carniglia and D. G. Jensen, "Single-layer model for surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 41, 3167-3171 (2002).
  37. K. D. Hendrix and C. K. Carniglia, "Path of a beam of light through an optical coating," Appl. Opt. 45, 2410-2421 (2006).
  38. R. E. Klinger, C. A. Hulse, C. K. Carniglia, and R. B. Sargent, "Beam displacement and distortion effects in narrowband optical thin-film filters," Appl. Opt. 45, 3237-3242 (2006).
  39. B. Papers Published in Proceedings
  40. T. H. Allen, J. H. Apfel, and C. K. Carniglia, "A 1.06 mm laser absorption calorimeter for optical coatings," NBS Spec. Publ. 541, 33-36 (1978).
  41. C. K. Carniglia, J. H. Apfel, G. B. Carrier, and D. Milam, "TEM investigation of effects of a barrier layer on damage to 1.064 mm AR coatings," NBS Spec. Publ. 541, 218-225 (1978).
  42. C. K. Carniglia, J. H. Apfel, T. H. Allen, T. A. Tuttle, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "Recent damage results on silica/titania reflectors at 1 micron," NBS Spec. Publ. 568, 377-390 (1979).
  43. T. A. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, and F. Rainer, "Effects of undercoats and overcoats on damage thresholds of 248 nm coatings," NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 344-349 (1983).
  44. B. E. Newnam, S. R. Foltyn, J. Jolin, and C. K. Carniglia, "Multiple shot ultraviolet laser damage resistance of non quarterwave reflector designs for 248 nm," NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 363-371 (1983).
  45. D. Milam, F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, J. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, and T. A. Tuttle Hart, "A review of 1064 nm damage test of electron beam deposited Ta2O5/SiO2 AR coating," NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 446-450 (1983).
  46. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, "Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm," NBS Spec. Publ. 669, 274-281 (1984).
  47. W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, and C. K. Carniglia, "Photothermal deflection microscopy of thin film optical coatings," NBS Spec. Publ. 669, 349-353 (1984).
  48. F. Rainer, C. L. Vercimak, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Tuttle Hart, "Measurements of the dependence of damage thresholds on laser wavelength, pulse duration and film thickness," NBS Spec. Publ. 688, 268-276 (1985).
  49. T. Tuttle Hart, F. Rainer, C. K. Carniglia, and M. C. Staggs, "Recent damage results for antireflection coatings at 355 nm," NBS Spec. Publ. 688, 340-346 (1985).
  50. C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, "Recent damage results on high reflector coatings at 355 nm," NBS Spec. Publ. 688, 347-353 (1985).
  51. C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, and M. C. Staggs, "Effect of overcoats on 355 nm reflectors," NBS Spec. Publ. 727, 285-290 (1986).
  52. C. K. Carniglia, "Effects of dispersion on the determination of optical constants of thin films," Proc. SPIE 652, 158-165 (1986).
  53. C. K. Carniglia, "Laser damage to optical coatings--a continuing challenge," Proc. SPIE 652, 202-205 (1986).
  54. B. Pond, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "The effect of sputtering parameters on oxide films prepared by ion beam sputter deposition," NIST report on Damage to Optical Materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1986).
  55. B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, S. R. Tuenge, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Recent laser damage and calorimetry results on 351-nm antireflection coatings," NIST report on Damage to Optical Materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1986).
  56. J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Angular characterization of ion beam sputter deposited refractory oxides," NIST report on Damage to Optical Materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1986).
  57. S. R. Tuenge, L. D. Weaver, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Ultrahigh vacuum deposited oxide coatings," NIST report on Damage to Optical Materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1986).
  58. T. Raj, J. S. Price, and C. K. Carniglia, "Ion beam deposited oxide coatings," NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 325-332 (1987).
  59. B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Comparison of the optical properties of some high-index oxide films prepared by ion beam sputter deposition with those of electron beam evaporated films," NIST Spec. Publ. 752, 410-417 (1987).
  60. M. Law, J. Bender, and C. K. Carniglia, "Characterization of calcium fluoride optical surfaces," NIST Spec. Publ. 752, 532-541 (1987).
  61. C. K. Carniglia, D. G. Ewing, G. W. Flint, and J. W. Bender, "Strategy for polishing several mirrors to a common focal length," Proc. SPIE 818, 344-352 (1987).
  62. C. K. Carniglia, "A comparison of various rugate filter designs," NIST Spec. Publ. 756, 272-277 (1988).
  63. C. K. Carniglia and B. J. Pond, "Production of resonator optics for the 1315-nm oxygen iodine laser," Proc. SPIE 895, 281-287 (1988).
  64. T. Raj, D. E. McCready, and C. K. Carniglia, "Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation," NIST Spec. Publ. 775, 152-165 (1989).
  65. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking," NIST Spec. Publ. 775, 311-319 (1989).
  66. M. Dafoe, B. J. Pond, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Ion beam sputtered MgF2 and CaF2 films," NIST Spec. Publ. 775, 366-376 (1989).
  67. F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, and W. K. Stowell, "Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy," Proc. SPIE 1438, 299-308 (1989).
  68. C. K. Carniglia and B. J. Pond, "Design techniques for dual wavelength polarizing beamsplitters," Proc. SPIE 1166, 323-334 (1990).
  69. B. J. Pond and C. K. Carniglia, "Design of a narrow-band-pass IR filter with a long-wavelength pass band," Proc. SPIE 1307, 537-549 (1990).
  70. C. K. Carniglia and K. N. Schrader, "Interaction between dispersive and inhomogeneous models for interpreting spectral ellipsometric data of thin films," Proc. SPIE 1324, 79-87 (1990).
  71. B. J. Pond, T. C. Du, J. Sobczak, C. K. Carniglia, and F. L. Williams, "Low pressure reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition of metal-oxide thin films," Proc. SPIE 1624, 174-191 (1992).
  72. F. L. Williams, G. A. Peterson, R. A. Schmell, and C. K. Carniglia, "Observation and control of thin-film defects using in-situ total internal reflection microscopy," Proc. SPIE 1624, 256-269 (1992).
  73. D. W. Reicher, K. C. Jungling, and C. K. Carniglia, "Contamination of surfaces prior to optical coating by in-situ total internal reflection microscopy," Proc. SPIE 2114, 154-165 (1994).
  74. B. J. Pond, T. C. Du, S. Talley, C. K. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, and G. B. Charlton, "High-power 1.315-μm laser test of multilayer mirrors," Proc. SPIE 2114, 335-344 (1994).
  75. B. J. Pond, T. C. Du, J. Sobczak, and C. K. Carniglia, "Comparison of the optical properties of oxide films deposited by reactive-dc-magnetron sputtering with those of ion-beam-sputtered and electron-beam-evaporated films," Proc. SPIE 2114, 345-354 (1994).
  76. C. K. Carniglia and S. T. Turner, Jr., "End-to-end optical design for HABE tracking and pointing system," Proc. SPIE 2221, 542-560 (1994).
  77. C. K. Carniglia, D. R. Eastman, G. Y. Shen, and G. R. Huse, "High altitude balloon experiment 60-cm telescope design and manufacturing," Proc. SPIE 2221, 610-625 (1994).
  78. C. K. Carniglia, "Tolerancing an extended corner cube for high-altitude balloon experiment tracking and pointing applications," Proc. SPIE 2221, 676-687 (1994).
  79. C. K. Carniglia, "Optical coating performance on thin plastic films," in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating (Bakish Materials Corporation, 1995), pp. 107-125.
  80. C. K. Carniglia, "A simple dispersion equation for dielectric and semiconductor materials," in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1995), pp. 176-181.
  81. K. P. Gibbons, J. D. Wolfe, R. E. Laird, C. K. Carniglia, and S. W. T. Westra, "Two approaches to conductive AR coatings for the display market," SID Display Manufacturing Technology Conference Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 1995), pp. 64-65.
  82. C. K. Carniglia, "Method for calculating the sputter distribution from a C-MAG cylindrical target in the presence of gas scattering," in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 211-216.
  83. R. E. Laird, J. D. Wolfe, and C. K. Carniglia, "Durable conductive anti-reflection coatings for glass and plastic substrates," in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 361-365.
  84. R. E. Laird, K. P. Gibbons, R. Newcomb, and C. K. Carniglia, "Uniform sputtered coatings for CRTs," SID Display Manufacturing Technology Conference Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 1996), p. 19.
  85. K. P. Gibbons, C. K. Carniglia, R. E. Laird, R. Newcomb, J. D. Wolfe, and S. W. T. Westra, "ITO coatings for display applications," in Proceedings of the 40th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1997), pp. 216-220.
  86. K. P. Gibbons, C. K. Carniglia, and R. E. Laird, "Sputtering of ITO from a rotating ceramic target," in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1998), pp. 159-164.
  87. K. P. Gibbons, R. E. Laird, and C. K. Carniglia, "High-rate sputter deposition of TiO2 using closed-loop feedback control," in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1998), pp. 178-181.
  88. D. G. Jensen, C. L. Beall, T. N. Gaidzik, and C. K. Carniglia, "Atomic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring evaporation processes," in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1999), pp. 17-22.
  89. C. K. Carniglia, "Perfect mirrors--from a coating designer's point of view," Proc. SPIE 3902, 68-84 (2000).
  90. C. K. Carniglia, "Design principles of ultra-narrow band filters for WDM applications," in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 314-323.
  91. P. A. Boeder, J. T. Visentine, C. G. Shaw, C. K. Carniglia, J. W. Alred, and C. E. Scares, "Effect of a silicone contaminant film on the transmittance properties of AR-coated fused silica," Proc. SPIE 5526, 32-43 (2004).
  92. C. Papers Published in Society and Technical Journals
  93. C. K. Carniglia, "Guest editorial," Opt. News, August 1986 , p. 7.
  94. C. K. Carniglia, "Improving the performance of interference coatings for high power laser optics," Opt. News, July 1987 , pp. 11, 15.
  95. C. K. Carniglia, "Useful optics by W. T. Welford (book review)," Opt. News, June 1992 , p. 45.
  96. C. K. Carniglia, "An introduction to mirrors: coating choice makes a difference," in The Photonics Design and Application Handbook (Laurin Publishing Co., 1999), pp. H314-H317.
  97. C. K. Carniglia, "Hot or hype? Reflections on the perfect mirror," Photonics Spectra 33 (June), 148-150 (1999).
  98. C. K. Carniglia, "Reversed polarizations," Photonics Spectra 33 (August), 12-13 (1999).
  99. J. W. Seeser and C. K. Carniglia, "Perfect mirrors," Photonics Spectra 33 (December), 12 (1999).
  100. C. K. Carniglia, "Optical system design: keeping the coatings in mind," in The Photonics Design and Application Handbook (Laurin Publishing Co., 2004), pp. H372-H375.
  101. D. U.S. Patents
  102. J. H. Apfel and C. K. Carniglia, "Multilayer mirror with maximum reflectance," U.S. patent 4,309,075 (1 May 1982).
  103. D. T. Jennings, C. K. Carniglia, and D. B. Young, "Method and apparatus for automatic egg mass counting," U. S. patent 4,390,787 (28 June 1983).
  104. J. P. Lehan and C. K. Carniglia, "Telecentric reflection head for optical monitor," U.S. patent 5,699,164 (16 December 1997).
  105. R. E. Laird and C. K. Carniglia, "Broad-band AR coating having four sputtered layers," U.S. patent 6,074,730 (13 June 2000).

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