OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 2 — Jan. 10, 2008
  • pp: 296–311

Acquisition algorithm for direct-detection ladars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Adam B. Milstein, Leaf A. Jiang, Jane X. Luu, Eric L. Hines, and Kenneth I. Schultz  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp. 296-311 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.000296


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2067 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

An optimal algorithm for detecting a target using a ladar system employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) is presented. The algorithm applies to any scenario where a ranging direct detection ladar is used to determine the presence of a target against a sky background within a specified range window. A complete statistical model of the detectionprocess for GAPDs is presented, including GAPDs that are inactive for a fixed period of time each time they fire. The model is used to develop a constant false alarm rate detection algorithm that minimizes acquisition time. Numerical performance predictions, simulation results, and experimental results are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
(280.3400) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser range finder
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar
(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing and Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 26, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 28, 2007
Published: January 9, 2008

Citation
Adam B. Milstein, Leaf A. Jiang, Jane X. Luu, Eric L. Hines, and Kenneth I. Schultz, "Acquisition algorithm for direct-detection ladars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Opt. 47, 296-311 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-2-296


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., "Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system," Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23-36 (2005).
  2. M. A. Albota, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, D. G. Fouche, B. E. Player, M. E. O'Brien, B. F. Aull, J. J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. C. Willard, and R. R. Carlson, "Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser," Appl. Opt. 41, 7671-7678 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Verghese, D. M. Cohen, E. A. Dauler, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, P. I. Hopman, K. E. Jensen, Z.-L. Liau, L. J. Mahoney, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Oakley, and G. M. Smith, "Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for photon-counting communications," in LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), pp. 15-16. [CrossRef]
  4. The "SPCM-AQR" single photon counting module from Perkin-Elmer is one example, and it was used in this report's experimental investigation.
  5. D. G. Fouche, "Detection and false-alarm probabilities for laser radars that use Geiger-mode detectors," Appl. Opt. 42, 5388-5398 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Henriksson, "Detection probabilities for photon-counting avalanche photodiodes applied to a laser radar system," Appl. Opt. 44, 5140-5147 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Johnson, P. Gatt, and T. Nichols, "Analysis of Geiger-mode APD laser radars," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VIII, Proc. SPIE 5086, 359-368 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, "Dead-time effects on Geiger-mode APD performance," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XII, Proc. SPIE 6550, 65500I (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar System (Artech House, 1992).
  10. G. R. Osche, Optical Detection Theory for Laser Applications (Wiley, 2002).
  11. B. J. Klein and J. J. Degnan, "Optical antenna gain 1: transmitting antennas," Appl. Opt. 13, 2134-2141 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Engstrom, ed., RCA Electro-Optics Handbook (RCA/Commercial Engineering, 1974).
  13. B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, "Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging," Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335-48 (2002).
  14. J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IEEE 53, 1688-1700 (1965). [CrossRef]
  15. D. G. Youmans, "Avalanche photodiode detection statistics for direct detection laser radar," in Laser Radar VII, Proc. SPIE 1633, 41-52 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Roussas, An Introduction to Probability and Statistical Inference (Academic, 2003).
  17. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).
  18. H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1.
  19. M. I. Skolnik, Radar Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1990).
  20. J. T. Rickard and G. M. Dillard, "Adaptive detection algorithms for multiple target situations," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-13, 338-343 (1977). [CrossRef]
  21. L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, "Photon-number resolving detector with 10-bits of resolution," Phys. Rev. A 75, 062325 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. L. A. Jiang, D. R. Schue, D. C. Harrison, A. G. Hayes, E. L. Hines, J. M. Richardson, and K. I. Schultz, "Active range of the Optical Systems Test Facility at MIT Lincoln Laboratory," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, Proc. SPIE 6214, 62140Q (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. B. Levin, "A representation for multinomial cumulative distribution functions," Ann. Stat. 9, 1123-1126 (1981). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited