OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2008
  • pp: 3689–3693

Laser tunable Toraldo superresolution with a uniform nonlinear pupil filter

Jingsong Wei and Mufei Xiao  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 21, pp. 3689-3693 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1390 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the focal spot size by inserting a uniform nonlinear thin film at the aperture of a focusing lens. The reduction of spot size is tunable by adjusting the incoming laser power. In comparison with the original diffraction spot, the transverse spot size can be reduced 0.65 times. The nonlinear thin film acts effectively as a Toraldo filter, and the phase and amplitude modulation stems from the laser-induced variances in the transmission of the thin film. The proposed technique removes the need of fabricating annular pupil filters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution

ToC Category:
Thin Films

Original Manuscript: December 17, 2007
Revised Manuscript: April 3, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 13, 2008
Published: July 11, 2008

Jingsong Wei and Mufei Xiao, "Laser tunable Toraldo superresolution with a uniform nonlinear pupil filter," Appl. Opt. 47, 3689-3693 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Toraldo di Francia, “Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power,” Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 426-435 (1952). [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard and Z. S. Hegedus, “Axial behavior of pupil-plane filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 643-647 (1988). [CrossRef]
  3. T. R. M. Sales, “Smallest focal spot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3844-3837 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. M. Sales and G. M. Morris, “Fundamental limits of optical super-resolution,” Opt. Lett. 22, 582-584 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Leiserson, S. G. Lipson, and V. Sara, “Super-resolution in far-field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25, 209-211 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, Z. J. Laczik, and V. Sara, “Optimized pupil-plane filters for confocal microscope point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Lett. 25, 245-247(2000). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Wang, L. Shi, G. Yuan, W. Tan, and T. Chong, “Subwavelength and super-resolution nondiffraction beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yun, L. Liu, J. Sun, and D. Liu, “Three-dimensional super-resolution by three-zone complex pupil filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 272-277 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Zalevsky, A. Shemer, A. Zlotnik, E. B. Eliezer, and E. Marom, “All-optical axial super resolving imaging using a low-frequency binary-phase mask,” Opt. Express 14, 2631-2643 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. M. de Juana, J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Design of super-resolving continuous phase filters,” Opt. Lett. 28, 607-609 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Xu, J. Singh, C. J. R. Sheppard, and N. Chen, “Ultra long high resolution beam by multi-zone rotationally symmetrical complex pupil filter,” Opt. Express 15, 6409-6412 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1993), pp. 392-397.
  13. J. Wei, M. Xiao, and F. Zhang, “Supper-resolution with a nonlinear thin film: beam reshaping via internal multi-interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 223126 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Choi, J. Park, M. R. Kim, and W. Jhe, “Direct observation of self-focusing near the diffraction limit in polycrystalline silicon film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 856-858 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  16. L. T. Jiang, T. C. Huang, C. R. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, and S. Y. Yang, “Fabrication of plastic microlens arrays using hybrid extrusion rolling embossing with a metallic cylinder mold fabricated using dry film resist,” Opt. Express 15, 12088-12094 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited