OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 4555–4559

Two-dimensional integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and photodetectors for position sensing

Antonios V. Giannopoulos, Ansas M. Kasten, Christopher M. Long, Chen Chen, and Kent D. Choquette  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 25, pp. 4555-4559 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (8199 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Noncontact long-range position sensing is desirable for a number of applications. We have designed and fabricated a monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (PIN) photodetectors for optical position sensing. Calculations using the reflection from a periodic metallic corrugation as a position gauge indicate resolution in the submicron regime. High device uniformity is obtained using novel fabrication techniques. We observe a threshold current of 0.52 mA for the VCSELs and a detector responsivity of 0.38 A / W at 840 nm . The optical cross talk between VCSELs and detectors is also quantified.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: January 10, 2008
Revised Manuscript: June 18, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2008
Published: August 27, 2008

Antonios V. Giannopoulos, Ansas M. Kasten, Christopher M. Long, Chen Chen, and Kent D. Choquette, "Two-dimensional integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and photodetectors for position sensing," Appl. Opt. 47, 4555-4559 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Hasnain, K. Tai, Y. H. Wang, K. D. Choquette, B. E. Weir, N. K. Dutta, and A. Y. Cho, “Monolithic integration of photodetector with vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1630-1632 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. G. G. Ortiz, C. P. Hains, J. Cheng, H. Q. Hou, and J. C. Zolper, “Monolithic integration of In02Ga08As vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with resonance-enhanced quantum well photodetectors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1205-1207(1996). [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Alduino, S. Q. Luong, Y. Zhou, C. P. Hains, and J. Cheng, “Quasi-planar monolithic integration of high-speed VCSEL and resonant enhanced photodetector arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 512-514 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kazlas, J. Wasserbauer, J. Scott, D. Paananen, S. Swirhun, and D. Lewis, “Monolithic vertical-cavity laser/p-i-n photodiode transceiver array for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1530-1532 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Stach, F. Rinaldi, M. Chandran, S. Lorch, and R. Michalzik, “Bidirectional optical interconnection at Gb/s data rates with monolithically integrated VCSEL-MSM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2386-2388 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Thrush, O. Levi, W. Ha, G. Carey, L. J. Cook, J. Deich, S. J. Smith, W. E. Moerner, and J. S. Harris Jr., “Integrated semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and PIN photodetectors for biomedical flourescence sensing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 491-498 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Miyajima, E. Yamamoto, and K. Yanagisawa, “Optical micro encoder with sub-micron resolution using a VCSEL,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 71, 213-218 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).
  9. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1989).
  10. J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory (EMW, 2000).
  11. M. B. Tayahi, N. K. Dutta, W. S. Hobson, D. Vakhshoori, J. Lopata, and J. Wynn, “High power InGaAs/GaAsP/lnGaP surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1794-1795(1997). [CrossRef]
  12. K. D. Choquette and K. M. Geib, “Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, eds. (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 193-232.
  13. P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, Jr., A M. Kasten, and K. D. Choquette, “Etch damage and deposition repair of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 104-107 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. K. D. Choquette, N. Tabatabaie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Detector-enclosed vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 466-467 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited