OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 4633–4639

Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV

Regina Soufli, Andrew L. Aquila, Farhad Salmassi, Mónica Fernández-Perea, and Eric M. Gullikson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 25, pp. 4633-4639 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3089 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30 770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K ( 188 eV ), carbon K ( 284.2 eV ), and oxygen K ( 543.1 eV ) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.6870) Thin films : Thin films, other properties
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

ToC Category:
Thin Films

Original Manuscript: May 22, 2008
Revised Manuscript: July 15, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2008
Published: August 29, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Regina Soufli, Andrew L. Aquila, Farhad Salmassi, Mónica Fernández-Perea, and Eric M. Gullikson, "Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV," Appl. Opt. 47, 4633-4639 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962-5963 (1994).
  2. G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).
  3. S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
  5. C. Tarrio, R. N. Watts, T. B. Lucatorto, J. M. Slaughter, and C. M. Falco, “Optical constants of in situ-deposited films of important extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirror materials,” Appl. Opt. 374100-4104 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Optical properties of hot-pressed B4C in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1537-1540 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).
  9. R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).
  11. R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719(1998). [CrossRef]
  12. M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).
  15. C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).
  16. E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).
  22. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/. [CrossRef]
  23. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1992).
  24. M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited