OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 2008
  • pp: 5130–5139

Characterization of nanostructured GaSb: comparison between large-area optical and local direct microscopic techniques

I. S. Nerbø, M. Kildemo, S. Le Roy, I. Simonsen, E. Søndergård, L. Holt, and J. C. Walmsley  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 28, pp. 5130-5139 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (6507 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Low energy ion-beam sputtering of GaSb results in self-organized nanostructures with the potential of structuring large surface areas. Characterization of such nanostructures by optical methods is studied and compared to direct (local) microscopic methods. The samples consist of densely packed GaSb cones on bulk GaSb, approximately 30, 50, and 300 nm in height, prepared by sputtering at normal incidence. The optical properties are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, in the range 0.6 6.5 eV , and with Mueller matrix ellipsometry in the visible range, 1.46 2.88 eV . The optical measurements are compared to direct topography measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Good agreement is achieved between the two classes of methods when the experimental optical response of the short cones ( < 55 nm ) is inverted with respect to topological surface information, via a graded anisotropic effective medium model. The main topological parameter measured was the average cone height. Optical methods are shown to represent a valuable characterization tool of nanostructured surfaces, in particular when a large coverage area is desirable. Because of the fast and nondestructive properties of optical techniques, they may readily be adapted to in situ configurations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2130) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(260.2065) Physical optics : Effective medium theory
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

Original Manuscript: May 28, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 13, 2008
Published: September 24, 2008

I. S. Nerbø, M. Kildemo, S. Le Roy, I. Simonsen, E. Søndergård, L. Holt, and J. C. Walmsley, "Characterization of nanostructured GaSb: comparison between large-area optical and local direct microscopic techniques," Appl. Opt. 47, 5130-5139 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics. Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th corrected ed. (Pergamon, 1980). [PubMed]
  2. G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Cui, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, “Ex situ ellipsometric investigation of nanocolumns inclination angle of obliquely evaporated silicon thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446-451(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Facsko, T. Dekorsy, C. Koerdt, C. Trappe, H. Kurz, A. Vogt, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Formation of ordered nanoscale semiconductor dots by ion sputtering,” Science 285, 1551-1553(1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Brun, A. Lelarge, S. Le Roy, E. Søndergård, and E. Barthel are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of nanostructured GaSb.”
  6. M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbø, E. Søndergård, L. Holt, I. Simonsen, and M. Stachakovsky, “Optical response of nanostructured gasb,” Phys. Stat. Sol C 5, 1382-1385 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Drévillon, “Phase modulated ellipsometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared: in situ applications to the growth of semiconductors,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 27, 1-87(1993). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Hauge, “Conventions and formulas for using the Mueller-Stokes calculus in ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 96, 81-107(1980). [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Jellison, Jr. and J. W. McCamy, “Sample depolarization effects from thin films of ZnS on GaAs as measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 512-514 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Chipman, “Depolarization index and the average degree of polarization,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2490-2495 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Weaire and N. Rivier, “Soap, cells and statistics--random patterns in two dimensions,” Contemp. Phys. 25, 59-99 (1984). [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79-84 (1967).
  13. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1987).
  14. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Two-modulator generalized ellipsometry: theory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8190-8198 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Laskarakis, S. Logothetidis, E. Pavlopoulou, and M. Gioti, “Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry: formulation and application,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 43-49 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. I. S. Nerbø, M. Kildemo, S. W. Hagen, S. Leroy, and E. Søndergård, “Optical properties and characterization of tilted gasb nanocones,” (to be published).
  17. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985-1009(1983). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265-4274 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4 matrix formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502-510 (1972). [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Spanier and I. P. Herman, “Use of hybrid phenomenological and statistical effective-medium theories of dielectric functions to model the infrared reflectance of porous sic films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10437-10450 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Stuke and G. Zimmerer, “Optical properties of amorphous iii-v compounds. i. Experiment,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 49, 513-523(1972). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Zollner, “Model dielectric functions for native oxides on compound semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2523-2524(1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited