OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2008
  • pp: 5429–5435

Gloss optical elementary representative surface

Pierre Vernhes, Jean-Francis Bloch, Anne Blayo, and Bernard Pineaux  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 29, pp. 5429-5435 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (294 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Roughness measurements are of main importance in characterizing the optical properties of papers and prints. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the surface size and the spacing of the measures to be optically representative of the surface structure. Paper is a multiscale medium, and the roughness parameters extracted from the three-dimensional (3D) surface mapping depend on both the size and the step of discretization. Ray tracing, based on optical geometry, could be a tool to model the light reflection on a paper surface. Ray-tracer software was therefore developed. A new optical device was used to measure paper surface topographies at various scales. Ray tracing simulations were then performed on the 3D mapping and compared to the scattering indicatrix obtained with a classical goniometer. Hence it was possible to identify a magnification for various types of paper grades that is optically representative of the specular gloss.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(240.5770) Optics at surfaces : Roughness
(240.6700) Optics at surfaces : Surfaces
(080.1753) Geometric optics : Computation methods

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

Original Manuscript: August 1, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 4, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 5, 2008
Published: October 8, 2008

Pierre Vernhes, Jean-Francis Bloch, Anne Blayo, and Bernard Pineaux, "Gloss optical elementary representative surface," Appl. Opt. 47, 5429-5435 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.
  2. P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).
  3. G. Chinga, “Detailed characterization of paper surface structure for gloss assessment,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 222-227 (2004).
  4. G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).
  5. M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).
  6. M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).
  7. J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).
  8. J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).
  9. J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).
  10. T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).
  12. P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).
  13. I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).
  15. S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).
  16. ISO 25178-6, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS)--surface texture: areal. Part 6. Classification of methods for measuring surface texture,” (ISO, 2008).
  17. H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).
  18. M. Lindstrand, “Gloss: measurement, characterization and visualization in the light of visual evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation (Linkopings Universitet, 2002).
  19. P. Edstrom, “Mathematical modelling of light scattering in paper and print,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mid Sweden University, 2004).
  20. “Standard terminology of apparence,” A. E284 (American Society of Testing and Materials, 1999).
  21. M. C. Beland and J. Bennet, “Effect of local microroughness on the gloss uniformity of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).
  22. R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).
  23. D. I. Lee, “A fundamental study on gloss,” in TAPPI 1974 Coating Conference Proceedings (TAPPI, 1974), pp. 97-103.
  24. M. Lindstrand, “Gloss characterization by angularly and spacially resolved reflectometry in the light of visual evaluation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 61-70 (2002).
  25. R.Hunter, ed., The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).
  26. M. C. Beland, “Multiple scattering of light calculated from the topography of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).
  27. R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002). [CrossRef]
  29. I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).
  30. P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).
  31. N. J. Elton, “A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper,” J. Opt. A 10, 085002 (2008).
  32. K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).
  33. K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).
  34. V. G. W. Harrison, “Gloss measurement of papers: application of the Barkas analysis,” Br. J. Appl. Phys 1, 46-53 (1950).
  35. L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.
  36. T. R. Lettieri, E. Marx, J. Song, and T. V. Vorburger, “Light scattering from glossy coatings on paper,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4439-4447 (1993).
  37. P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005). [CrossRef]
  39. P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).
  40. V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).
  41. L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).
  42. M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).
  43. K. E. Torrance, “Monochromatic directional distribution of reflected thermal radiation from roughened dielectric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 1964).
  44. K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited