OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 36 — Dec. 20, 2008
  • pp: 6769–6777

Optimal parameters for retinal illumination and imaging in fundus cameras

E. DeHoog and J. Schwiegerling  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 36, pp. 6769-6777 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (892 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A fundus camera is a complex optical system for imaging the retina of the eye. Designing a fundus camera requires the combination of an imaging system and an illumination system to share common optics. This combination of systems results in the need to find an optimal balance between imaging and illuminating the retina. We present a series of parameters and methods used to optimize the illumination system of a fundus camera while maintaining excellent image quality.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4570) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical design of instruments

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: June 27, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 20, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: October 29, 2008
Published: December 12, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

E. DeHoog and J. Schwiegerling, "Optimal parameters for retinal illumination and imaging in fundus cameras," Appl. Opt. 47, 6769-6777 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Bennett and J. Francis, “Retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy,” in The Eye: Visual Optics and the Optical Spatial Sense, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, 1962), Vol. 4, pp. 181-208.
  2. N. Shibata and M. Torii, “Fundus camera,” U.S. Patent 6,654,553 (2003).
  3. N. Kishida and S. Ono, “Eye fundus examination apparatus,” U.S. Patent 7,055,955 (2006).
  4. N. Ichikawa, “Fundus camera,” U.S. Patent 7,219,996 (2007).
  5. N. Shibata, “Fundus camera,” U.S. Patent 6,755,526 (2004).
  6. H. A. Knoll, “Ophthalmic instruments,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume 5, Optical Instruments, Part 2, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, 1969), pp. 281-304.
  7. M. Hammer and D. Schweitzer, “Quantitative reflection spectroscopy at the human,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 179-191 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1065-1077 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).
  10. E. DeHoog and J. Schweigerling, Ophthalmic Optics Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA, “Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  11. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881-1891 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. V. Mahajan, Aberration Theory Made Simple (SPIE Press, 1991). [CrossRef]
  13. H. L. Liou and N. A. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684-1695 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Calculation of setting areas equal results in √(2) * Ri=Rpupil, where Rpupil=3.75 mm.
  15. F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. 186, 558-578 (1966). [PubMed]
  16. J. Liang and D. R. Williams, “Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Atchison, “H. L. Liou and N. A. Brennan (1996) prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16(4), 348-354,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18, 85(1998). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Smith, “H. L. Liou and N. A. Brennan (1996) prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16(4), 348-354,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18, 83-84(1998). [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of the human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 29-37 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Diaz, C. Pizarro, and J. Arasa, “Single dispersive gradient-index profile for the aging human lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 250-261 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited