OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 2008
  • pp: 1072–1081

Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics

Nicholas Devaney, Alexander V. Goncharov, and J. Christopher Dainty  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 8, pp. 1072-1081 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2446 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The atmosphere introduces chromatic errors that may limit the performance of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large telescopes. Various aspects of this problem have been considered in the literature over the past two decades. It is necessary to revisit this problem in order to examine the effect on currently planned systems, including very high-order AO on current 8 10 m class telescopes and on future 30 42 m extremely large telescopes. We review the literature on chromatic effects and combine an analysis of all effects in one place. We examine implications for AO and point out some effects that should be taken into account in the design of future systems. In particular we show that attention should be paid to chromatic pupil shifts, which may arise in components such as atmospheric dispersion compensators.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: September 21, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: December 9, 2007
Published: March 7, 2008

Nicholas Devaney, Alexander V. Goncharov, and J. Christopher Dainty, "Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 47, 1072-1081 (2008)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Dierickx, E. Brunetto, F. Comeron, R. Gilmozzi, F. Gonte, K. Foch, M. L. Louarn, G. Monnet, J. Spyromillio, I. Surdej, C. Verinaud, and N. Yaitskova, “OWL phase a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 391-406 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).
  3. T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14,7515-7534 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Lehn and S. van der Werf, “Atmospheric refraction: a history,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5624-5636 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. P. Wallner, “The effects of atmospheric dispersion on compensated imaging,” Proc. SPIE 75, 119-125 (1976).
  7. E. P. Wallner, “Minimising atmospheric dispersion effects in compensated imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 407-409 (1977). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Hogge and R. R. Butts, “Effects of using different wavelengths in wave-front sensing and correction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 606-609 (1982). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics (North Holland, 1981) Vol. 19, pp. 281-376. [CrossRef]
  10. S. Gladsyz, J. C. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J (2006).
  11. A. Tokovinin, “Polychromatic scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 686-689 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Fried, “Spectral and angular covariance of scintillation for propagation in a randomly inhomogeneous medium,” Appl. Opt. 10, 721-731 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Femenía and N. Devaney, “Optimization with numerical simulations of the conjugate altitudes of deformable mirrors in an MCAO system,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 1165-1176(2003). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Vernin and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory. 2: intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic optical telescope,” Astron. Astrophys 284, 311-318 (1994).
  15. C. Wynne and S. Worswick, “Atmospheric dispersion correctors at the Cassegrain focus,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 220, 657-670 (1986).
  16. G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J. M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135-1143 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Goncharov, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “Atmospheric dispersion compensation for extremely large telescopes,” Opt. Express 15, 1534-1542 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Roe, “Implications of atmospheric differential refraction for adaptive optics observations,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 450-461 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Owens, “Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition,” Appl. Opt. 6, 51-59(1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1566-1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Birch and M. Downs, “The results of a comparison between calculated and measured values of the refractive index of air,” J. Phys. E 21, 694-695 (1988). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).
  23. R. Stone, “An accurate method for computing atmospheric refraction,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 1051-1058 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. V. Abalakin, Refraction Tables of Pulkovo Observatory (Nauka, 1985).
  25. S. van der Werf, “Ray tracing and refraction in the modified US1976 atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 42, 354-366 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. Malyuto and M. Meinel, “Spectral classification systems and photometry needed in calculations for atmospheric refraction,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 457-466 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Owner-Petersen and A. Goncharov, “Some consequences of atmospheric dispersion for ELTs,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 507-517 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211 (1976). [CrossRef]
  29. N. Nightingale and D. Buscher, “Interferometric seeing measurements at the La Palma Observatory,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 251, 155-166 (1991).
  30. M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, and D. H. Staelin, “Atmospheric phase measurements with the Mark III stellar interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4106-4112 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Ziad, M. Schock, G. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B. F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316-2324 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Sasiela, “Strehl ratios with various types of anisoplanatism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1398-1405 (1992). [CrossRef]
  33. T. Nakajima, “Zenith-distance dependence of chromatic shear effect: a limiting factor for an extreme adaptive optics system,” Astrophys. J. 652, 1782-1786 (2006). [CrossRef]
  34. “Earth Atmosphere Model”, [http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/atmosmet.html].
  35. O. Guyon, “Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). [CrossRef]
  36. L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Veran, and R. Conan, “Analytical modeling of adaptive optics: foundations of the phase spatial power spectrum approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 382-394(2006). [CrossRef]
  37. M. Owner-Petersen, “Effects of atmospheric dispersion on the PSF background level,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722F(2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited