OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2008
  • pp: 1278–1285

Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud

Giuseppe Baldacchini, Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, and Giulio Fanti  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 9, pp. 1278-1285 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (8947 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelength of 308 nm ) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence of laser shots. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4930) General : Other topics of general interest
(140.2180) Lasers and laser optics : Excimer lasers
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: September 18, 2007
Revised Manuscript: January 21, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 29, 2008
Published: March 18, 2008

Giuseppe Baldacchini, Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, and Giulio Fanti, "Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud," Appl. Opt. 47, 1278-1285 (2008)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Vignon, Le Linceul du Christ (Masson, 1902).
  2. M. Antonacci, The Resurrection of the Shroud (M. Evans, 2000).
  3. G. Fanti and E. Marinelli, La Sindone Rinnovata. Misteri e Certezze (Progetto Editoriale Mariano, 2003); also references at www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/Shroud.htm.
  4. F. Zugibe, The Crucifiction of Jesus, a Forensic Inquiry (M. Evans, 2005).
  5. G. Fanti, B. Schwortz, A. Accetta, J. A. Botella, B. J. Buenaobra, M. Carreira, F. Cheng, F. Crosilla, R. Dinegar, H. Felzmann, B. Haroldsen, P. Iacazio, F. Lattarulo, G. Novelli, J. Marino, A. Malantrucco, P. Maloney, D. Porter, B. Pozzetto, R. Schneider, N. Svensson, T. Wally, A. D. Whanger, and F. Zugibe, “Evidences for testing hypotheses about the body image formation of the Turin Shroud,” presented at The Third Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin, Dallas, Texas, 8-11 September 2005;see www.shroud.com/pdfs/doclist.pdf
  6. J. S. Accetta and J. S. Baumgart,“Infrared reflectance spectroscopy and thermographic investigations of the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1921-1929 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. D. Adler and D. Crispino, eds., The Orphaned Manuscript (Effatà, 2002), pp. 11-25.
  8. W. C. Mc Crone,“The Shroud image,” Microscope 48, 79-85(2000).
  9. J. Nickell, Inquest on the Shroud of Turin, New Updated ed. (Prometheus Books, 1997).
  10. J. P. Jackson:, “Is the image on the Shroud due to a process heretofore unknown to modern science?” Shroud Spectrum Int. 34, 3-29 (1990).
  11. R. Rogers and A. Arnoldi, “Scientific method applied to the Shroud of Turin, a review,” www.shroud.com/pdfs/rogers2.pdf
  12. J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, and W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244-2270 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Fanti and M. Moroni, “Comparison of luminance between face of Turin Shroud Man and experimental results,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 142-154 (2002).
  14. The corona effect is a process by which a current develops from an electrode with a high potential in a neutral fluid, usually air, by ionizing that fluid so as to create a plasma around the electrode. The ions generated eventually pass charge to nearby areas of lower potential or recombine to form neutral gas molecules. Suitable geometry and gradient values allow plasma emission of ultraviolet light during recombination. See, e.g., G. Fanti, F. Lattarulo, and O. Scheuermann, “Body image formation hypotheses based on corona discharge,” presented at The Third Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin, Dallas, Texas, 8-11 September 2005; http://www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/corona.pdf
  15. G. Fanti and R. Maggiolo: “The double superficiality of the frontal image of the Turin Shroud,” J. Opt. A 6, 491-503(2004). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Di Lazzaro, G. Schina, R. De Maria, E. Gesi, and A. Cerretini, “Trattamento di superfici tessili con laser ad eccimeri,” Energ. Ambiente Innovazione 4, 29-35 (1995).
  17. P. Di Lazzaro, “Finissaggio di tessuti sintetici con luce ultravioletta,” Innovare 2, 32-36 (2001).
  18. M. Moroni, “Sulla formazione naturale e sulla struttura accidentale dell'immagine sindonica, aloe e mirra, fattori determinanti per una impronta superficiale--verifica sperimentale,” presented at IV Congresso Nazionale di Studi sulla Sindone, Siracusa, 17-18 Ottobre 1987 (1988).
  19. F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment: comparison with electron beam and heat source,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109-114 (2002); see http://www.autexrj.org/No5/0028.pdf
  20. P. Di Lazzaro, “Hercules, an XeCl laser facility for high-intensity irradiation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 3423, 35-43(1998). [CrossRef]
  21. See http://www.frascati.enea.it/fis/lac/excimer/index-exc.html
  22. The presence of the polysaccharides layer that wraps linen fibers of the Turin Shroud yarns is presented in , p. 4, points A3, A4, A7, and A10. This layer was discovered by R. Rogers and communicated to the Shroud Science Group, a 100-expert private group study (G. Fanti, chairman) that discusses the scientific aspects of the Turin Shroud. The presence of this layer was successively confirmed by G. Fanti.
  23. “La Sindone è provocazione all'intelligenza,” (The Turin Shroud is a challenge to the intelligence), said Pope John Paul II visiting Turin on 24 May, 1998, adding that “The Church entrusts scientists the task to go on with research.”

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited