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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2009
  • pp: 2149–2153

Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

Jeppe Revall Frisvad  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 11, pp. 2149-2153 (2009)

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The refractive index of freezing brine is important in order to, for example, estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [ Appl. Opt. 34, 3477 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above 24 ° C and salinities below 180 .

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(010.7340) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Water
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: January 12, 2009
Revised Manuscript: March 18, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: March 19, 2009
Published: April 6, 2009

Jeppe Revall Frisvad, "Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine," Appl. Opt. 48, 2149-2153 (2009)

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  1. X. Quan and E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3477-3480(1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. D. T. Huibers, “Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3785-3787 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. W. E. Ringer, “Ueber die Veränderungen in der Zusammensetzung des Meereswassersalzes beim Ausfrieren,” Verhandelingen uit het Rijksinstituut voor het Onderzoek der Zee 1, 1-55 (1906).
  10. K. E. Gitterman, “Thermal analysis of sea water,” Trudy Solyanoi Laboratorii Akademii Nauk SSSR 15, 5-32(1937); Translated in Tech. Rep. CRREL TL 287 (U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 1971).
  11. K. H. Nelson and T. G. Thompson, “Deposition of salts from sea water by frigid concentration,” Tech. Rep. 29(Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, 1954).
  12. G. M. Marion, R. E. Farren, and A. J. Komrowski, “Alternative pathways for seawater freezing,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 29, 259-266 (1999). [CrossRef]

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