OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2009
  • pp: 3344–3354

Four-dimensional measurement by a single-frame structured light method

Robert Sitnik  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 18, pp. 3344-3354 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1627 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A four-dimensional [4D—three-dimensional (3D) shape varying in time] shape measurement system is described. A single 3D shape of an object is calculated from only one frame. The projected pattern is composed of sinusoidal intensity fringes and one color-encoded stripe, the analysis of which allows us to find the absolute coordinates of the measured object. During measurement, the position of the stripe changes due to the improvement of the quality of spatiotemporal unwrapping. The fringes deformed by the shape of the object are captured by a CCD camera and processed by an adaptive spatial carrier phase-shifting algorithm. The use of an algorithm based on fast Fourier transformation is proposed to approximate the local period of fringes. A new phase-unwrapping routine based on the spatiotemporal information is presented as well. All these features make the 3D shape measurement of an object in motion possible with the additional advantage of using a low-cost system. Experimental results of the developed method together with a preliminary assessment of measurement uncertainty are presented to show the validity of the method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis
(100.5088) Image processing : Phase unwrapping

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: February 17, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 26, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: April 29, 2009
Published: June 10, 2009

Robert Sitnik, "Four-dimensional measurement by a single-frame structured light method," Appl. Opt. 48, 3344-3354 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. G. Nguyen and M. R. Blackburn, “A simple method for range finding via laser triangulation,” Technical document (Naval Research and Development, 1995).
  2. K. Kraus, Photogrammetry (Dümmler, 1993).
  3. R. Sitnik, M. Kujawińska, and J. Woźnicki, “Digital fringe projection system for large volume 360 deg shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 41, 443-449 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, and M. Haliousa, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3105-3108 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kujawińska and J. Wójciak, “Spatial phase-shifting technique of fringe pattern analysis in photomechanics,” Proc. SPIE 1554B, 503-513 (1991).
  6. G. T. Reid and D. W. Robinson, Interferogram Analysis (Institute of Physics, 1993).
  7. W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, and P. Andrae, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” Proc. SPIE 2860, 2-13 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Pirga, A. Kozłowska, and M. Kujawińska, “Generalization of the scaling problem for the automatic moire and fringe projection shape measurement systems,”in Fringe '93, Second International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns (Akademie Verlag, 1993), pp. 188-193.
  9. R. Sitnik, “A fully automatic 3D shape measurement system with data export for engineering and multimedia systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Warsaw University of Technology, 2002).
  10. L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission (3DPVT) (2002), pp. 24-36. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. A. Ypsilos, A. Hilton, and S. Rowe, “Video-rate capture of dynamic face shape and appearance,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 117-122. [CrossRef]
  12. M. Witkowski, R. Sitnik, M. Kujawinska, W. Rapp, M. Kowalski, B. Haex, and S. Mooshake, “4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures,” Proc. SPIE 6191H (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. T. P. Koninckx and L. Van Gool, “Real-time range acquisition by adaptive structured light,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28 (3), 432-445 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “High-resolution, real-time 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 45, 123601 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Pawłowski, “Automated system for absolute shape measurement of 3D time-varying objects,” Ph.D. dissertation (Warsaw University of Technology, 2002).
  16. S. Zhang and S.-T. Yau, “High-resolution, real-time 3D absolute coordinate measurement based on a phase-shifting method,” Opt. Express 14 (7), 2644-2649 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37 (3), 390-397 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook (Wiley, 2006). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79-99 (1990). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Pirga and M. Kujawińska, “Two-directional spatial-carrier phase shifting method for analysis of crossed and closed fringe pattern,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2459-2466 (1995). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Zhong and J. Weng, “Spatial carrier-fringe pattern analysis by means of wavelet transform: wavelet transform profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4993-4998 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Kujawińska and J. Wójciak, “High accuracy Fourier transform fringe pattern analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 14, 325-339(1991). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Zhong and J. Weng, “Dilating Gabor transform for the fringe analysis of 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 43, 895-899 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. J. M. Huntley, “Three-dimensional noise-immune phase unwrapping algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3901-3908 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited