OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 4158–4169

Sensor fusion of phase measuring profilometry and stereo vision for three-dimensional inspection of electronic components assembled on printed circuit boards

Deokhwa Hong, Hyunki Lee, Min Young Kim, Hyungsuck Cho, and Jeon Il Moon  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 21, pp. 4158-4169 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1791 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Automatic optical inspection (AOI) for printed circuit board (PCB) assembly plays a very important role in modern electronics manufacturing industries. Well-developed inspection machines in each assembly process are required to ensure the manufacturing quality of the electronics products. However, generally almost all AOI machines are based on 2D image-analysis technology. In this paper, a 3D-measurement-method-based AOI system is proposed consisting of a phase shifting profilometer and a stereo vision system for assembled electronic components on a PCB after component mounting and the reflow process. In this system information from two visual systems is fused to extend the shape measurement range limited by 2 π phase ambiguity of the phase shifting profilometer, and finally to maintain fine measurement resolution and high accuracy of the phase shifting profilometer with the measurement range extended by the stereo vision. The main purpose is to overcome the low inspection reliability problem of 2D-based inspection machines by using 3D information of components. The 3D shape measurement results on PCB-mounted electronic components are shown and compared with results from contact and noncontact 3D measuring machines. Based on a series of experiments, the usefulness of the proposed sensor system and its fusion technique are discussed and analyzed in detail.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(150.6910) Machine vision : Three-dimensional sensing
(330.1400) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - binocular and stereopsis
(150.3045) Machine vision : Industrial optical metrology

ToC Category:
Machine Vision

Original Manuscript: March 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 7, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 25, 2009
Published: July 14, 2009

Deokhwa Hong, Hyunki Lee, Min Young Kim, Hyungsuck Cho, and Jeon Il Moon, "Sensor fusion of phase measuring profilometry and stereo vision for three-dimensional inspection of electronic components assembled on printed circuit boards," Appl. Opt. 48, 4158-4169 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Moganti, F. Ercal, C. H. Dagli and S. Tsunekawa, “Automatic PCB inspection algorithms: a survey,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 63, 287-313 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Gasvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]
  3. V. I. Gushov and Y. N. Solodkin, “Automatic processing of fringe patterns in integer interferometer,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 14, 311-324 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhong and M. Wang, “Phase unwrapping by lookup table method: application to phase maps with singular points,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2075-2081 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3047-3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, “Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2770-2775 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Kakunai, K. Iwata, and T. Sakamoto, “Profile measurement by projecting two gratings with different pitches,” Opt. Rev. 1, 296-298 (1994).
  8. D. Bergmann, “New approach for automatic surface reconstruction with coded light,” Proc. SPIE 2572, 2-9 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gühring, “Dense 3-D surface acquisition by structured light using off-the-shelf components,” Proc. SPIE 4309, 220-231 (2001).
  10. G. Wiora, “High resolution measurement of phase-shift amplitude and numeric object phase calculation,” Proc. SPIE 4117, 289-299, (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Sato, “Range imaging based on moving pattern light and spatio-temporal matched filter”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 33-36. [CrossRef]
  12. H. Lee and H. Cho, “Stereo Moire technique: a novel 3D measurement method using a stereo camera and a digital pattern projector,” Int. J. Optomechatr. 1, 209-230 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ishiyama, S. Sakamoto, J. Tajima, T. Okatani, and K. Deguchi, “Absolute phase measurements using geometric constraints between multiple cameras and projectors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3528-3538 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Forsyth and J. Ponce, Computer Vision: A Modern Approach (Prentice-Hall, 2003).
  15. M. Laikin, Lens Design (Marcel Dekker, 1990).
  16. X. Su and W. Chen, “Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Asundi and Z. Wensen, “Fast phase-unwrapping algorithm based on a gray-scale mask and flood fill,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5416-5420 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2002).
  19. M. Y. Kim and K. I. Koh, “Shadow free Moire interferometer with dual projection for in-line inspection of light emitting diodes,” Int. J. Optomechatr. 1, 404-424 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. R. Hartley, A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge, 2000).
  21. H. Cho, Optomechatronics (Taylor & Francis, 2005). [CrossRef]
  22. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), http://www.eia.org/.
  23. JEDEC, http://jedec.org/.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited