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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2009
  • pp: 4801–4813

Conditions for primitive-lattice-vector-direction equal contrasts in four-beam-interference lithography

Justin L. Stay and Thomas K. Gaylord  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 24, pp. 4801-4813 (2009)

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Four distinct conditions for primitive-lattice-vector-direction equal contrasts in four-beam interference are introduced and described. By maximizing the absolute contrast subject to an equal contrast condition, lithographically useful interference patterns are found. Each condition is described in terms of the corresponding constraints on the plane wave wave vectors, polarizations, and intensities. The resulting locations of global intensity maxima, minima, and saddle points are presented. Subordinate conditions for unity absolute contrast are also developed. Three lattices are treated for each condition: simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(110.4235) Imaging systems : Nanolithography
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals
(050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: April 9, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: July 28, 2009
Published: August 19, 2009

Justin L. Stay and Thomas K. Gaylord, "Conditions for primitive-lattice-vector-direction equal contrasts in four-beam-interference lithography," Appl. Opt. 48, 4801-4813 (2009)

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