OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 31 — Nov. 1, 2009
  • pp: 5956–5969

Advanced short-wavelength infrared range-gated imaging for ground applications in monostatic and bistatic configurations

Endre Repasi, Peter Lutzmann, Ove Steinvall, Magnus Elmqvist, Benjamin Göhler, and Gregor Anstett  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 31, pp. 5956-5969 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1442 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Some advanced concepts for gated viewing are presented, including spectral diversity illumination techniques, non-line-of-sight imaging, indirect scene illumination, and in particular setups in bistatic configurations. By using a multiple-wavelength illumination source target speckles could be substantially reduced, leading to an improved image quality and enhanced range accuracy. In non-line-of-sight imaging experiments we observed the scenery through the reflections in a window plane. The scene was illuminated indirectly as well by a diffuse reflection of the laser beam at different nearby objects. In this setup several targets could be spotted, which, e.g., offers the capability to look around the corner in urban situations. In the presented measuring campaigns the advantages of bistatic setups in comparison with common monostatic configurations are discussed. The appearance of shadows or local contrast enhancements as well as the mitigation of retroreflections supports the human observer in interpreting the scene. Furthermore a bistatic configuration contributes to a reduced dazzling risk and to observer convertness.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.6150) Imaging systems : Speckle imaging
(280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: May 11, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 2, 2009
Published: October 23, 2009

Endre Repasi, Peter Lutzmann, Ove Steinvall, Magnus Elmqvist, Benjamin Göhler, and Gregor Anstett, "Advanced short-wavelength infrared range-gated imaging for ground applications in monostatic and bistatic configurations," Appl. Opt. 48, 5956-5969 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. F. Milton, G. Klager, and T. Bowman, “Low cost sensors for UGVs,” Proc. SPIE 4024, 180-191 (2000).
  2. M. Turner, “Standoff precision ID in 3-D,” www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/spi3d/spi3d.asp.
  3. A. Weidemann, G. R. Fournier, L. Forand, and P. Mathieu, “In harbor underwater threat detection/identification using active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5780, 59-70 (2005).
  4. D. Bonnier, S. Lelièvre, and L. Demers, “On the safe use of long-range laser active imager in the near-infrared for homeland security,” Proc. SPIE 6206, 62060A (2006).
  5. Night vision systems, www.turn.ru/porducts/index.htm
  6. O. Steinvall, P. Andersson, M. Elmqvist, and M. Tulldahl, “Overview of range gated imaging at FOI,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 654216 (2007).
  7. I. Baker, D. Owton, K. Trundle, P. Thorne, K. Storie, P. Oakley, and J. Copley, “Advanced infared detectors for multimode active and passive imaging applications,” Proc. SPIE 6940, 6902L (2008).
  8. J. Fortin, E. Thibeault, and G. Pelletier, “Improving the protection of the Canadian light armored vehicle using a laser based defensive aids suite,” J. Battlefield Technol. 9(3), 13-18 (2006).
  9. D. Bonnier and V. Larochelle, “A range-gated active imaging system for search and rescue, and surveillance operations,” Proc. SPIE 2744, 134-145 (1996).
  10. H. Larsson, O. Steinvall, T. Chevalier, and F. Gustafsson, “Characterizing laser radar snow reflection for the wavelengths 0.9 and 1.5 μm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 116201 (2006).
  11. R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Opt. Eng. 42, 738-746 (2003).
  12. O. Steinvall, P. Andersson, and M. Elmqvist, “Image quality for range-gated systems during different ranges and atmospheric conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6396, 6396-07(2006).
  13. P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45, 034301, 1-10(2006).
  14. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Xiuda, Y. Huimin, and J. Yanbing, “Pulse-shape-free method for long-range three-dimensional active imaging with high linear accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1219-1221 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. O. Steinvall, T. Chevalier, P. Andersson, and M. Elmqvist, “Performance modeling and simulation of range-gated imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 6542-18 (2007).
  17. R. L. Espinola, E. L. Jacobs, C. E. Halford, R. Vollmerhausen, and D. H. Tofsted, “Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems,” Opt. Express 15, 3816-3832 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. M. P. Strand, “Imaging model for underwater range-gated imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1537, 151-160 (1991).
  19. R. G. Driggers, J. S. Taylor, and K. Krapels, “Probability of identification cycle criterion (N50/N90) for underwater mine target acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 46, 033201 (2007).
  20. M. P. Strand, “Bistatic underwater optical imaging using AUVs,” Ocean Optics & Biology (OB) FY08 Annual Reports, Office of Naval Research 875 North Randolph Street, Arlington, Va. 22203-1995 (2008).
  21. J. Lin, H. Mishima, T. D. Kawahara, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, K. Yamaguchi, and K. Morikawa, “Bistatic imaging lidar measurements of aerosols, fogs and clouds in the lower atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 3504, 550-557 (1998).
  22. B. M. Welsh and C. S. Gardner, “Bistatic imaging lidar technique for upper atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 28, 82-88(1989). [CrossRef]
  23. W. R. Watkins, D. H. Tofsted, V. G. CuQlock-Knopp, J. B. Jordan, and M. M. Trivedi, “Active imaging applied to navigation through fog,” Proc. SPIE 3749, 750(1999).
  24. O. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, D. Letalick, T. Chevalier, Å. Persson, and P. Andersson, “Performance of 3-D laser radar through vegetation and camouflage,” Proc. SPIE 5792, 129-142 (2005).
  25. J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer Verlag, 1975).
  26. D. A. Orchard, A. J. Turner, L. Michaille, and K. R. Ridley, “White light lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 711506 (2008).
  27. C. E. Halford, A. L. Robinson, R. G. Driggers, and E. L. Jacobs, “Tilted surfaces in shortwave infrared imagery: speckle simulation and a simple contrast model,” Opt. Eng. 46, 1-11 (2007).
  28. B. Göhler, P. Lutzmann, and G. Anstett, “3D imaging with range gated laser systems using speckle reduction techniques to improve the depth accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 7113, 711307 (2008).
  29. J. H. Shapiro, “Correlation scales of laser speckle heterodyne detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1883-1888 (1985). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited