OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 5 — Feb. 10, 2009
  • pp: 810–817

Three-dimensional coherent transfer function for a confocal microscope with two D-shaped pupils

Ke Si, Wei Gong, and Colin J. R. Sheppard  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 5, pp. 810-817 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (928 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The three-dimensional coherent transfer function for D-shaped pupils in reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy is analytically derived under the paraxial approximation. Three-dimensional numerical plots are presented, showing the dependence of the transfer functions on the width of a central divider. The applications in fiber-optical confocal scanning microscopy are also discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(170.1530) Medical optics and biotechnology : Cell analysis
(290.0290) Scattering : Scattering

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: August 19, 2008
Revised Manuscript: December 19, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: December 23, 2008
Published: February 2, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Ke Si, Wei Gong, and Colin J. R. Sheppard, "Three-dimensional coherent transfer function for a confocal microscope with two D-shaped pupils," Appl. Opt. 48, 810-817 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. J. Dwyer and C. A. DiMarzio, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 31, 942-944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal theta line-scanning microscope for imaging human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1843-1851 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. J. R. Sheppard, W. Gong, and K. Si, “The divided aperture technique for microscopy through scattering media,” Opt. Express 16, 17031-17038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Koester, “A scanning mirror microscope with optical sectioning characteristics: applications in ophthalmology,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1749-1757 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Siedentopf and R. Zsigmondy, “Uber Sichtbarmachung und Grössenbestimmung ultramikroskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 1-39 (1903).
  6. H. Goldman, “Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie,” Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940). [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Maurice, “Cellular membrane activity in the corneal endothelium of the intact eye,” Experientia 24, 1094-1095(1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. J. Koester, “Comparison of optical sectioning methods: the scanning slit confocal microscope,” in Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1990).
  9. E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, S. Albrecht, R. Pick, G. Ritter, N. J. Salmon, and R. Stricker, “A new tool for the observation of embryos and other large specimens--confocal theta-fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 179, 1-10 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, and G. S. Kino, “Dual-axis confocal microscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28, 414-416 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. H. Voie, D. H. Burns, and F. A. Spelman, “Orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning: three-dimensional imaging of macroscopic biological specimens,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 170, 229-236 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305, 1007-1009(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “Dark-field and differential phase contrast imaging modes in confocal microscopy using a half-aperture stop,” Optik (Jena) 103, 101-106 (1996).
  14. P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, “The effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, “Three-dimensional coherent transfer function in a reflection-mode confocal scanning microscope,” Opt. Commun. 81, 281-284 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996). [CrossRef]
  17. C. J. R. Sheppard and K. G. Larkin, “Effect of numerical aperture on interference fringe spacing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4731-4734 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. J. R. Sheppard and X. Q. Mao, “Three dimensional imaging in a microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1260-1269 (1989). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Giniunas, R. Juskaitis, and S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724-726 (1991). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755-1761 (1991). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Signal level of the fibre optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1621-1630(1991). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Kimura and T. Wilson, “Confocal scanning optical microscope using single-mode fiber for signal detection,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2143-2150 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Dabbs and M. Glass, “Single-mode fibers used as confocal microscope pinholes,” Appl. Opt. 31, 705-706 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. Delaney and M. Harris, “Fiber optics in confocal microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed, J.Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 515-523.
  25. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Three-dimensional coherent transfer function in reflection-mode confocal microscopy using annular lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 783-793 (1992). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Three-dimensional optical transfer function in the fiber-optical confocal fluorescent microscope using annular lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1991-1999 (1992). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited