OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2009
  • pp: C11–C23

Laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation for fast in-line industrial steel hardness inspection and case depth measurements

Xinxin Guo, Konesh Sivagurunathan, Jose Garcia, Andreas Mandelis, Salvatore Giunta, and Salvatore Milletari  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 7, pp. C11-C23 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1436 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A contact-free, nondestructive laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation technique was developed to meet industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control. A series of industrial steel samples, flat or curvilinear, with different effective hardness case depths ranging between 0.21 and 1.78 mm were measured. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) extracted from fast swept-sine photothermal excitation and measurements, namely, the phase minimum frequency f min , the peak or trough frequency width W, and the area S, are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depth: f min is most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for small case depths. It was also found that laser beam angular inclination with respect to the surface plane of the sample strongly affects hardness measurement resolution and that the phase frequency maximum is more reliable than the amplitude maximum for laser beam focusing on the sample surface.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(120.4290) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Nondestructive testing
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

Original Manuscript: August 19, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2008
Published: October 22, 2008

Xinxin Guo, Konesh Sivagurunathan, Jose Garcia, Andreas Mandelis, Salvatore Giunta, and Salvatore Milletari, "Laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation for fast in-line industrial steel hardness inspection and case depth measurements," Appl. Opt. 48, C11-C23 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, “Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64-69 (1976). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Nordal and S. O. Kanstad, “Photothermal radiometry,” Phys. Scr. 20, 659-662 (1979). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Shen and A. Mandelis, “Thermal-wave resonator cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4999-5005 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the “mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130-132 (1980). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Salazar, A. Sanchez-Lavega, and J. M. Terron, “Effective thermal diffusivity of layered materials measured by modulated photothermal techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3031-3041(1998). [CrossRef]
  6. T. D. Bennett and F. Yu, “A nondestructive technique for determining thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013520 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Li and G. Zhou, “Photothermal radiometry probing of scars in the internal surface of a thin metal tube,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3781-3783 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Depriester, P. Hus, S. Delenclos, and A. Sahraoui, “New methodology for thermal parameter measurements in solids using photothermal radiometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 074902 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Reichling and H. Gronbeck, “Harmonic heat flow in isotropic layered systems and its use for thin film thermal conductivity measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914-1922(1994). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Jaarinøn and M. Luukkala, “Numerical analysis of thermal waves in stratified media for non-destructive testing purposes,” J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C6-503 (1983). [CrossRef]
  11. T. T. N. Lan, H. G. Walther, G. Goch, and B. Schmitz, “Experimental results of photothermal microstructural depth profiling,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4108-4111 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. H. G. Walther, D. Fournier, J. C. Krapez, M. Luukkala, B. Schmitz, C. Sibilia, H. Stamm, and J. Thoen, “Photothermal steel hardness measurements-results and perspectives,” Anal. Sci. 17, s165-s168 (2001).
  13. D. Fournier, J. P. Roger, A. Bellouati, C. Boué, H. Stamm, and F. Lakestani, “Correlation between hardness and thermal diffusivity,” Anal. Sci. 17, s158-s160 (2001).
  14. M. Munidasa, F. Funak, and A. Mandelis, “Application of a generalized methodology for quantitative thermal diffusivity depth profile reconstruction in manufactured inhomogeneous steel-based materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3495-3498(1998). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Mandelis, Diffusion-Wave Fields: Mathematical Methods and Green Functions (Springer, 2001), Chap. 3.
  16. H. Qu, C. Wang, X. Guo, and A. Mandelis, “Reconstruction of depth profiles of thermal conductivity of case-hardened steels using a three-dimensional photothermal technique,” J. Appl. Phys. , to be published.
  17. A. Mandelis, F. Funak, and M. Munidasa, “Generalized methodology for thermal diffusivity depth profile reconstruction in semi-infinite and finitely thick inhomogeneous solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5570-5578 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. Standard SAE 9310, “Data on world wide metals and alloys,” (SAE International, 1990), SA-444.
  19. C. Wang, A. Mandelis, H. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Influence of laser beam size on measurement sensitivity of thermophysical property gradients in layered structures using thermal-wave techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043510(2008). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Nicolaides and A. Mandelis, “Methods for surface roughness elimination from thermal-wave frequency scans in thermally inhomogeneous solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1255-1265(2001). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639 (1964). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited