OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2010
  • pp: E83–E93

Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications

David Sheen, Douglas McMakin, and Thomas Hall  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 19, pp. E83-E93 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1063 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz , with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imag ing techniques are described along with several application results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2910) Holography : Holography, microwave
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(280.5600) Remote sensing and sensors : Radar
(280.6730) Remote sensing and sensors : Synthetic aperture radar

Original Manuscript: December 15, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: March 10, 2010
Published: June 15, 2010

David Sheen, Douglas McMakin, and Thomas Hall, "Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications," Appl. Opt. 49, E83-E93 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, P. R. Coward, A. R. Barnes, P. D. Munday, M. Moore, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Mechanically scanned real-time passive millimeter wave imaging at 94GHz,” Proc. SPIE 5077, 1–6 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, G. N. Sinclair, and P. R. Coward, “Whole-body 35GHz security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 244–251 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. P. R. Coward and R. Appleby, “Development of an illumination chamber for indoor millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5077, 54–61 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Martin, W. Manning, V. G. Kolinko, and M. Hall, “Flight test of a passive millimeter-wave imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 24–34 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Shoucri, R. Davidheiser, B. Hauss, P. Lee, M. Mussetto, S. Young, and L. Yujiri, “A passive millimeter wave camera for aircraft landing in low visibility conditions,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 10, 37–42 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Wikner, “Passive millimeter-wave imagery of helicopter obstacles in a sand environment,” Proc. SPIE 6211, 621103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter wave imaging,” IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39–50 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. G. R. Huguenin, “A millimeter wave focal plane array imager,” Proc. SPIE 2211, 300–301 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Ausherman, A. Kozma, J. L. Walker, H. M. Jones, and E. C. Poggio, “Developments in radar imaging,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-20, 363–400 (1984). [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Cross-Section Imaging (Artech House, 1991).
  11. D. C. Munson, J. D. O’Brien, and W. K. Jenkins, “A tomographic formulation of spotlight-mode synthetic aperture radar,” Proc. IEEE 71, 917–925 (1983). [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. Walker, “Range-Doppler imaging of rotating objects,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-16, 23–52 (1980). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Gabor, “A new microscope principle,” Nature 161, 177–178(1948). [CrossRef]
  14. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130(1962). [CrossRef]
  15. N. H. Farhat, “Microwave holography and its applications in modern aviation,” in Engineering Applications of Holography Symposium Proceedings (SPIE, 1972), pp. 295–314.
  16. B. P. Hildebrand and B. B. Brenden, An Introduction to Acoustical Holography, 1st ed. (Plenum, 1972).
  17. B. P. Hildebrand and K. A. Haines, “Holography by scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1–6 (1969). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Tricoles and N. H. Farhat, “Microwave holography: applications and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 65, 108–121 (1977). [CrossRef]
  19. Boyer, “Reconstruction of ultrasonic images by backward propagation,” in Acoustical Holography, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Acoustical Holography (1970), Vol. 3, pp. 333–348. [PubMed]
  20. M. Soumekh, “A system model and inversion for synthetic aperture radar imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 1, 64–76 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Soumekh, Fourier Array Imaging (Prentice-Hall, 1994).
  22. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1581–1592(2001). [CrossRef]
  23. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
  24. M. Soumekh, “Bistatic synthetic aperture radar inversion with application in dynamic object imaging,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 2044–2055 (1991). [CrossRef]
  25. D. Slater, Near-Field Antenna Measurements (Artech House, 1991).
  26. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system,” U.S. patent 5,859,609 (12 Jan. 1999).
  27. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Combined illumination cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 52–60(2000). [CrossRef]
  28. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, W. M. Lechelt, and J. W. Griffin, “Circularly polarized millimeter-wave imaging for personnel screening,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 117–126 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique and applications,” Proc. SPIE 6211, 62110A (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited