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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2010
  • pp: E94–E105

Target identification and navigation performance modeling of a passive millimeter wave imager

Eddie L. Jacobs and Orges Furxhi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 19, pp. E94-E105 (2010)

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Human task performance using a passive interferometric millimeter wave imaging sensor is modeled using a task performance modeling approach developed by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. The techniques used are illustrated for an imaging system composed of an interferometric antenna array, optical upconversion, and image formation using a shortwave infrared focal plane array. Two tasks, target identification and pilotage, are modeled. The effects of sparse antenna arrays on task performance are considered. Applications of this model include system trade studies for concealed weapon identification, navigation in fog, and brownout conditions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5100) Imaging systems : Phased-array imaging systems
(280.4991) Remote sensing and sensors : Passive remote sensing

Original Manuscript: December 17, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 16, 2010
Published: June 28, 2010

Eddie L. Jacobs and Orges Furxhi, "Target identification and navigation performance modeling of a passive millimeter wave imager," Appl. Opt. 49, E94-E105 (2010)

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  1. R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Bui, “Using a targeting metric to predict the utility of an EO imager as a pilotage aid,” Proc. SPIE 6207, 62070C (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Murrill, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, C. E. Halford, S. T. Griffin, F. C. D. Lucia, D. T. Petkie, and C. C. Franck, “Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1286–1297 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. L. Espinola, E. L. Jacobs, C. E. Halford, R. Vollmerhausen, and D. H. Tofsted, “Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems,” Opt. Express 15, 3816–3832 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, A. R. Harvey, and K. Webster, “Coherent optical beam forming with passive millimeter-wave arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 418–425(1999). [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Schuetz, J. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Radiometric millimeter-wave detection via optical upconversion and carrier suppression,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1732–1738 (2005).
  7. D. Prather, I. Biswas, C. Schuetz, R. Martin, and M. Mirotznik, “Multiple aperture imaging of millimeter sources via image-plane interferometry,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS, 2007). pp. 2967–2970. [CrossRef]
  8. E. Boettcher, K. Krapels, R. Driggers, J. Garcia, C. Schuetz, J. Samluk, L. Stein, W. Kiser, A. Visnansky, J. Grata, D. Wikner, and R. Harris, “Modeling field performance of passive millimeter wave imagery for discriminating small watercraft,” in Proceedings of the Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2009).
  9. S. S. Young, R. G. Driggers, and E. L. Jacobs, Signal Processing and Performance Analysis for Imaging Systems, Artech House Optoelectronics Series (Artech House, 2008).
  10. R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, J. Hixson, and M. Friedman, “The targeting task performance (TTP) metric.” Technical Report AMSEL-NV-TR-230 (U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronics Sensor Directorate, 2006), p. 140.
  11. C. A. Schuetz, M. S. Mirotznik, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W.Prather, “Optical techniques for sparse-aperture millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6211, 62110G (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. N. J. Miller, M. P. Dierking, and B. D. Duncan, “Optical sparse aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5933–5943 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1997).
  14. C. A. Schuetz, M. S. Mirotznik, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “Applications of optical upconversion to sparse aperture millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 59891C (2005) [CrossRef]

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