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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2010
  • pp: 4207–4216

Modeling the field diffracted from photo mask at oblique incidence

Tamer Tawfik Elazhary, Ahmed Hisham Morshed, and Diaa Khalil  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 22, pp. 4207-4216 (2010)

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In optical lithography, light diffracted from photo mask structures has been customarily assumed to be constant with the angle of incidence of the light illuminating the photo mask. As numerical aperture increases to unity and beyond, to cope with the continuous demand for shrinking integrated circuits, device dimensions, and densities, this approximation is no longer valid. In this paper we use the physical theory of diffraction to study, understand, and model the variation of light diffracted from photo mask structures of the order of the wavelength, with the angle of light incidence. We present a semianalytical model that is fast, accurate, and compatible with existing professional software in this domain. The accuracy of the model is studied using the finite-difference time-domain technique and is shown to be below 5% at the image plane, within angles of incidence between ± 20 ° .

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(110.4235) Imaging systems : Nanolithography

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: January 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 19, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 26, 2010
Published: July 27, 2010

Tamer Tawfik Elazhary, Ahmed Hisham Morshed, and Diaa Khalil, "Modeling the field diffracted from photo mask at oblique incidence," Appl. Opt. 49, 4207-4216 (2010)

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