OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2010
  • pp: 4483–4488

Crosstalk quantification, analysis, and trends in CMOS image sensors

Lior Blockstein and Orly Yadid-Pecht  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 24, pp. 4483-4488 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.004483


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (573 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Pixel crosstalk (CTK) consists of three components, optical CTK (OCTK), electrical CTK (ECTK), and spectral CTK (SCTK). The CTK has been classified into two groups: pixel-architecture dependent and pixel-architecture independent. The pixel-architecture-dependent CTK (PADC) consists of the sum of two CTK components, i.e., the OCTK and the ECTK. This work presents a short summary of a large variety of methods for PADC reduction. Following that, this work suggests a clear quantifiable definition of PADC. Three complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors based on different technologies were empirically measured, using a unique scanning technology, the S-cube. The PADC is analyzed, and technology trends are shown.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: March 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 9, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2010
Published: August 11, 2010

Citation
Lior Blockstein and Orly Yadid-Pecht, "Crosstalk quantification, analysis, and trends in CMOS image sensors," Appl. Opt. 49, 4483-4488 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-24-4483


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. G. Agranov, J. Ladd, T. Gilton, R. Mauritzson, U. Boettiger, X. Fan, and X. Li, “Small pixel development for novel CMOS image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 700108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Kim, Y. Jang, J. Lee, K. Moon, E. Lee, A. Getman, J. Ahn, and Y. Lee, “Gr Gb difference in 3M CMOS image sensor with 1.75μm pixel,” in IEEE International Image Sensor Workshop (2007), pp. 271–274.
  3. I. Shcherback, B. Belotserkovsky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “A unique submicron scanning system use for CMOS APS crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5017, 136–147(2003). [CrossRef]
  4. I. Shcherback, T. Danov, B. Belotserkovsky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Point by point thorough photoresponse analysis of CMOS APS by means of our unique sub-micron scanning system,” Proc. SPIE 5301, 232–241 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. I. Shcherback, T. Danov, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “A comprehensive CMOS APS crosstalk study: photoresponse model, technology, and design trends,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 2033–2041 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. I. Shcherback and O. Yadid-Pecht, “CMOS APS crosstalk characterization via a unique submicron scanning system,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 1994–1997 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. I. Shcherback, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “CMOS APS crosstalk: modeling, technology and design trends,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2004 (2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1261–1264. [CrossRef]
  8. I. Shcherback and O. Yadid-Pecht, “CMOS APS photoresponse and crosstalk optimization analysis for scalable CMOS technologies,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference of Electronics, Circuits and Systems (2004), pp. 153–155.
  9. I. Shcherback and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Photoresponse analysis and pixel shape optimization for CMOS active pixel sensors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 12–18 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Grois, I. Shcherback, T. Danov, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Theoretical approach to CMOS APS PSF and MTF modeling-evaluation,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 118–124 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Shcherback, R. Segal, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Two-dimensional CMOS image sensor characterization,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (2006), pp. 3582–3585.
  12. I. Shcherback, R. Segal, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Two-dimensional MTF and crosstalk characterization for CMOS image sensors,” in IEEE 24th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (2006), pp. 349–353.
  13. G. Agranov, V. Berezin, and R. H. Tsai, “Crosstalk and microlens study in a color CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 4–11 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. T. H. Hsu, Y. K. Fang, C. Y. Lin, S. F. Chen, C. S. Lin, D. N. Yaung, S. G. Wuu, H. C. Chien, C. H. Tseng, and J. S. Lin, “Light guide for pixel crosstalk improvement in deep submicron CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 22–24 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. T. H. Hsu, Y. K. Fang, D. N. Yaung, S. G. Wuu, H. C. Chien, C. H. Tseng, L. L. Yao, W. D. Wang, C. S. Wang, and S. F. Chen, “A high-efficiency CMOS image sensor with air gap in situ microlens (AGML) fabricated by 0.18μm CMOS technology,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 26, 634–636 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Hsu, Y. Fang, D. Yaung, S. Wuu, H. Chien, C. Wang, J. Lin, C. Tseng, S. Chen, and C. Lin, “Color mixing improvement of CMOS image sensor with air-gap-guard ring in deep-submicrometer CMOS technology,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 26, 301–303 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Hsu, Y. K. Fang, D. N. Yaung, S. G. Wuu, H. C. Chien, C. S. Wang, J. S. Lin, C. H. Tseng, S. F. Chen, and C. S. Lin, “Dramatic reduction of optical crosstalk in deep-submicrometer CMOS imager with air gap guard ring,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 25, 375–377 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. D. N. Yaung, S. G. Wuu, H. C. Chien, T. H. Hsu, C. H. Tseng, J. S. Lin, J. J. Chen, C. H. Lo, C. Y. Yu, C. S. Tsai, and C. S. Wang, “Air-gap guard ring for pixel sensitivity and crosstalk improvement in deep sub-micron CMOS image sensor,” in International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest (2003), pp. 5–16.
  19. C. H. Tseng, S. G. Wuu, H. C. Chien, D. N. Yaung, J. S. Lin, H. J. Hsu, C. Y. Yu, C. H. Lo, C. S. Wang, and T. H. Hsu, “Crosstalk improvement technology applicable to 0.14μm CMOS image sensor,” in IEDM Technical Digest (2004), pp. 997–1000. [CrossRef]
  20. B. J. Park, J. Jung, C. R. Moon, S. H. Hwang, Y. W. Lee, D. W. Kim, K. H. Paik, J. R. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Deep trench isolation for crosstalk suppression in active pixel sensors with 1.7m pixel pitch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2454–2457(2007). [CrossRef]
  21. C. C. Fesenmaier, Y. Huo, and P. B. Catrysse, “Optical confinement methods for continued scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels,” Opt. Express 16, 20457–20470 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. H. Koo, H. K. Kim, K. H. Paik, D. C. Park, K. H. Lee, Y. K. Park, C. R. Moon, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hwang, and D. H. Lee, “Improvement of crosstalk on 5M CMOS image sensor with 1.7×1.7μm pixels,” Proc. SPIE 6471, 647115(2007). [CrossRef]
  23. S. H. Cho, G. Kim, H. Noh, C. R. Moon, K. Lee, K. Koh, and D. Lee, “Optoelectronic investigation for high performance 1.4μm pixel CMOS image sensors,” in Extended Programme of the 2007 International Image Sensor Workshop (2007), pp. 6–10.
  24. S. H. Lee, C. R. Moon, K. H. Paik, S. H. Hwang, J. C. Shin, J. Jung, K. Lee, H. Noh, D. Lee, and K. Kim, “The features and characteristics of 5-mega CMOS image sensor with topologically unique 1.7μm×1.7μm pixels,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology (2006), pp. 142–143.
  25. G. Agranov, J. Ladd, T. Gilton, R. Mauritzson, U. Boettiger, X. Fan, and X. Li, “Small pixel development for novel CMOS image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 700108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. G. Agranov, R. Mauritzson, S. Barna, J. Jiang, A. Dokoutchaev, X. Fan, and X. Li, “Super small, sub 2μm pixels for novel CMOS image sensors,” in IEEE International Image Sensor Workshop (2007), pp. 307–310.
  27. W. Li, P. Ogunbona, S. Yu, and I. Kharitonenko, “Modelling of color cross-talk in CMOS image sensors,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2002), Vol. 4, pp. 3576–3579.
  28. A. Getman, T. Uvarov, Y. I. Han, B. Kim, J. C. Ahn, and Y. H. Lee, “Crosstalk, color tint and shading correction for small pixel size image sensor,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2007), pp. 166–169.
  29. I. Shcherbach, E. Gan, L. Blockstein, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “CMOS image sensor sensitivity improvement via cumulative crosstalk reduction,” presented at the International Image Sensor Workshop, Bergen, Norway, 22–28 June 2009.
  30. K. Hirakawa, “Cross-talk explained,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (2008), pp. 677–680.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited