OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 2010
  • pp: 5407–5414

Minimally invasive assessment of the effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline therapy on traumatic brain edema using measurements of reduced scattering coefficient ( μ s )

Jieru Xie, Zhiyu Qian, Tianming Yang, Weitao Li, and Guangxia Hu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 28, pp. 5407-5414 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (642 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Minimally invasive functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs) technology was utilized to assess the effects of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE). Rats with TBE models were given mannitol or HS in different dosages for different groups. The reduced scattering coefficient ( μ s ) of the local cortex of rats was simultaneously monitored and recorded in vivo and real time by the minimally invasive fNIRs system. Brain water content (BWC) was measured by the wet and dry weight method at 1, 6, 24, 72, and 120 h after injury and treatment. Effects of treating TBE with different dehydration agents were then assessed by recording μ s and BWC before and after administration of dehydration. In this study, the dynamic changes of brain edema and the effects of dehydration therapy were continuously monitored. Results implied that μ s of the local cortex in rats is a good indicator for assessing effects of treatment of TBE. By recording changes in the value of μ s , the following conclusions were obtained: HS is more effective than mannitol in reducing cerebral edema. The effect of dehydration of HS is only related to osmotic gradient and has no correlation with concentration.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.1470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Blood or tissue constituent monitoring
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
(170.6930) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tissue
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: December 11, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 9, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 6, 2010
Published: September 28, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 14 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Jieru Xie, Zhiyu Qian, Tianming Yang, Weitao Li, and Guangxia Hu, "Minimally invasive assessment of the effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline therapy on traumatic brain edema using measurements of reduced scattering coefficient (μs′)," Appl. Opt. 49, 5407-5414 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. A. Ashman, W. A. Gordon, J. B. Cantor, and M. R. Hibbard, “Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Mt. Sinai J. Med. 73, 999–1005 (2006).
  2. T. V. Whelan, M. E. Bacon, M. Madden, T. G. Patel, and R. Handy, “Acute renal failure associated with mannitol intoxication: report of a case,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2053–2055(1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Goldwasser and S. Fotino, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion. Appropriate response of tubuloglomerular feedback?,” Arch. Intern. Med. 144, 2214–2216(1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Dorman, J. H. Sondheimer, and P. Cadnapaphornchai, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” Medicine (Baltimore) 69, 153–159 (1990).
  5. A. J. Pérez-Pérez, B. Pazos, J. Sobrado, L. Gonzalez, and A. Gándara, “Acute renal failure following massive mannitol infusion,” Am. J. Nephrol. 22, 573–575 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Dziedzic, A. Szczudlik, A. Klimkowicz, T. M. Rog, and A. Slowik, “Is mannitol safe for patients with intracerebral hemorrhages? Renal considerations,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 105, 87–90 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Wang, “Mannitol-induced renal injury and its prevention,” New Chin. Med. 31, 413–414 (2000).
  8. P. Visweswaran, E. K. Massin, and T. D. Dubose, “Mannitol-induced acute renal failure,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1028–1033 (1997). [PubMed]
  9. W. Jia, C. Yu, F. Wang, F. Chen, W. Cao, and R. Chen, “Medication of traumatic brain edema in rats,” J. Cap. Univ. Med. Sci. 22, 216–219 (2001).
  10. T. Donato, Y. Shapira, A. Artru, and K. Powers, “Effect of mannitol on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and brain tissue edema,” Anesth. Analg. 78, 58–66 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. C. Hartwell and L. N. Sutton, “Mannitol intracranial pressure and vasogenic edema,” Neurosurg. 32, 440–450 (1993).
  12. G. Zhu, J. Yao, Z. Qin, and X. Sun, “The effect of mannitol on brain edema of cerebral vascular disease (CVD) patients: a study with MRI,” Chin. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 286–288 (1997).
  13. H. Kobayashi, H. Ide, M. Kabuto, Y. Handa, T. Kubota, and Y. Ishii, “Effect of mannitol on focal cerebral ischemia evaluated by somatosensory-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging,” Surg, Neurol. 44, 55–62 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. J. I. Suarez, A. I. Qureshi, A. Bhardwaj, M. A. Williams, M. S. Schnitzer, M. Mirski, D. F. Hanley, and J. A. Ulatowski, “Treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension with 23.4% saline,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 1118–1122 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. I. Qureshi and J. Suarez, “Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 3301–3313 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Zeng, H. Ye, H. Li, C. Chen, Y. Wu, C. Sun, and G. Zhan, “The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline in the treatment of intracranial hypertension,” Chin. J. Emer. Med. 11, 176–178(2002).
  17. D. S. Prough and M. H. Zornow, “Mannitol: an old friend in the skids?,” Crit. Care Med. 26, 997–998 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Junger, D. B. Edelman, and W. G. Junger, “Hypertonicity promotes survival of corticospinal motoneurons via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling,” J. Molec. Neurosci. 21, 111–120 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Oi, A. Aneman, M. Svensson, S. Ewert, M. Dahlqvist, and H. Haljamäe, “Hypertonic saline-dextran improves intestinal perfusion and survival in porcine endotoxin shock,” Crit. Care Med. 28, 2843–2850 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Munar, A. M. Ferrer, M. de Nadal, M. A. Poca, S. Pedraza, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Garnacho, “Cerebral hemodynamic effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure,” J. Neurotrauma 17, 41–51 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. M. Yada-Langui, E. A. Anjos-Valotta, P. Sannomiya, M. R. E. Silva, and R. Coimbra, “Resuscitation affects microcirculatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior after hemorrhagic shock: role of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline,” Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 684–693 (2004).
  22. M. Hirsh, L. Dyugovskaya, Y. Bashenko, and M. M. Krausz, “Reduced rate of bacterial translocation and improved variables of natural killer cell and T-cell activity in rats surviving controlled hemorrhagic shock and treated with hypertonic saline,” Crit. Care Med. 30, 861–865 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. A. Deitch, H. P. Shi, E. Feketeova, C. J. Hauser, and D. Xu, “Hypertonic saline resuscitation limits neutrophil activation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock,” Shock Waves 19, 328–333(2003).
  24. J. A. Kolsen-Petersen, “Immune effect of hypertonic saline: fact or fiction?,” Acta Anaesth. Scand. 48, 667–678 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Brain Trauma Foundation, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring,” J. Neurotrauma 24, S37–S44 (2007). [PubMed]
  26. D. W. Marion, L. E. Penrod, S. F. Kelsey, Walter D. Obrist, P. M. Kochanek, A. M. Palmer, S. R. Wisniewski, and S. T. DeKosky, “Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia,” N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 540–546 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. R. Bullock, R. Chesnut, J. Ghajar, D. Gordon, R. Hartl, D. W. Newell, F. Servadei, B. C. Walters, and J. E. Wilberger, “Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury,” Neurosurg. Q. 58, 306–310 (2006).
  28. P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a near infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head,” Stroke 32, 2492–2500 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, L. Tyszczuk, J. H. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Xie, Z. Qian, L. He, and T. Yang, “Study on assessment effects of mannitol on treatment TBE based on measurement mini-invasive optical parameter (μs′),” Spectr. Spectr. Anal. 29, 3254–3258 (2009).
  31. Z. Qian, R. Chen, Y. Gu, C. A. Giller, and H. Liu, “In vivo determination of tissue optical properties: reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” J. Nanjing Univ. Aeron. Astron. 36, 369–372(2004).
  32. Z. Qian, Y. Gu, and H. Liu, “In vivo and real time measurement of rat brain reduced scattering coefficient (μs′),” Chin. J. Med. Phys. 22, 463–465 (2005).
  33. L. Dai, Z. Qian, K. Li, T. Yang, and H. Wang, “In vivo detection of reduced scattering coefficient of C6 glioma in rat brain tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044003(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murry, and W. G. Dail, “Response to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211, 67–77(1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. K. Okiyama, D. H. Smith, M. J. Thomas, and T. K. Mcintosh, “Evaluation of a novel calcium channel blocker, (S)-emopamil, on regional cerebral edema and neurobehavioral function after experimental brain injury,” J. Neurosurg. 77, 607–615(1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. A. Rabinstein, “Treatment of cerebral edema,” Neurologist 12, 59–73 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. M. Todd, J. Cutkomp, and J. E. Brian, “Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury,” Anesthesiology 105, 1176–1181 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. H. E. James, “The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 96, 125–129 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, “Effects of hypertonic (10%) saline in patients with raised intracranial pressure after stroke,” Stroke 33, 136–140 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. N. Wenham, A. P. Hormis, and J. C. Andrzejowski, “Hypertonic saline after traumatic brain injury in UK neuro-critical care practice,” Anaesthesia 63, 558–559 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited