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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 2010
  • pp: 5454–5464

Optimization of nonbinary slanted surface-relief gratings as high-efficiency broadband couplers for light guides

Benfeng Bai, Janne Laukkanen, Markku Kuittinen, and Samuli Siitonen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 28, pp. 5454-5464 (2010)

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We propose and investigate the use of slanted surface-relief gratings with nonbinary profiles as high-efficiency broadband couplers for light guides. First, a Chandezon-method-based rigorous numerical formulation is presented for modeling the slanted gratings with overhanging profiles. Then, two typical types of slanted grating couplers—a sinusoidal one and a trapezoidal one—are studied and optimized numerically, both exhibiting a high coupling efficiency of over 50% over the full band of white LED under the normal illumination of unpolarized light. Reasonable structural parameters with nice tolerance have been obtained for the optimized designs. It is found that the performance of the couplers depends little on the grating profile shape, but primarily on the grating period and the slant angle of the ridge. The underlying mechanism is analyzed by the equivalence rules of gratings, which provide useful guidelines for the design and fabrication of the couplers. Preliminary investigation has been performed on the fabrication and replication of the slanted overhanging grating couplers, which shows the feasibility of fabrication with mature microfabrication techniques and the perspective for mass production.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: July 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 27, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 31, 2010
Published: September 29, 2010

Benfeng Bai, Janne Laukkanen, Markku Kuittinen, and Samuli Siitonen, "Optimization of nonbinary slanted surface-relief gratings as high-efficiency broadband couplers for light guides," Appl. Opt. 49, 5454-5464 (2010)

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