OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2010
  • pp: 5799–5805

Refractive index change in ytterbium-doped fibers induced by photodarkening and thermal bleaching

Changgeng Ye, Joan J. Montiel i Ponsoda, Ari Tervonen, and Seppo Honkanen  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 30, pp. 5799-5805 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.005799


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (918 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

High-accuracy measurements and analysis of refractive index change induced by photodarkening and thermal bleaching in ytterbium-doped fibers are presented, based on a modal interference method. Photodarkening-induced refractive index change is positive at the ytterbium lasing wavelengths near 1080 nm , and it approaches a saturated level, which is in the order of 10 6 10 5 for the tested fiber samples. It is found that the value of this refractive index change is linearly proportional to the photodarkening-induced excess loss at an arbitrary probe wavelength in the visible band. Thermal bleaching can only partially erase the photodarkening-induced refractive index change, leaving a residual index change of ( 0.2 0.3 ) × 10 5 . The influence of the photodarkening-induced refractive index change on fiber lasers is discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 9, 2010
Published: October 14, 2010

Citation
Changgeng Ye, Joan J. Montiel i Ponsoda, Ari Tervonen, and Seppo Honkanen, "Refractive index change in ytterbium-doped fibers induced by photodarkening and thermal bleaching," Appl. Opt. 49, 5799-5805 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-30-5799


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, and S. K. T. Tammela, “Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 11539–11544(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, “Thermal bleaching of photodarkening-induced loss in ytterbium-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2637–2639(2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Bochove, “Nonlinear refractive index of a rare-earth-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2414–2416 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, and S. Trivedi, “Pump-induced nonlinear refractive-index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: theory and experiment,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1261–1263 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Mégret, “Dynamics of pump-induced refractive index changes in single-mode Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 12658–12663 (2008). [PubMed]
  7. M. Janos and S. C. Guy, “Signal-induced refractive index changes in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 542–548 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. A. V. Kliner, J. P. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, “Photodarkening rate in Yb-doped silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1247–1256 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15, 14838–14843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, “Heat-induced darkening and spectral broadening in photodarkened ytterbium-doped fiber under thermal cycling,” Opt. Express 17, 9940–9946 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. Soderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, “Combined photodarkening and thermal bleaching measurement of an ytterbium-doped fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Canning and A. L. G. Carter, “Modal interferometer for in situ measurements of induced core index change in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 561–563 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, and M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193nmirradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman & Hall, 1983).
  15. T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Defect Analysis of photodarkened and gamma-ray irradiated ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWT2.
  16. J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13, 1055–1058 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. E. Siegman, “Gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1677–1682 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth,100W CW Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804–2806 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. L. Aslund, N. Jovanovic, J. Canning, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Rapid decay of Type-II femtosecond laser inscribed gratings within Q-switched Yb3+-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 504–506 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Thermal properties of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed point-by-point by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 176–178 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited