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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 31 — Nov. 1, 2010
  • pp: 6160–6169

Wide-field high-resolution solid immersion fluorescence microscopy applying an aplanatic solid immersion lens

Lin Wang, Mark C. Pitter, and Michael G. Somekh  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 31, pp. 6160-6169 (2010)

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The use of aplanatic solid immersion lenses (ASILs) made of high refractive index optical materials provides a route to wide-field high-resolution optical microscopy. We analyze the aberrations that need to be circumvented for wide-field, high-resolution imaging by hybrid optical simulations based on both ray and wave optics. The conclusions on the relationships among ASIL size, fluorescence imaging spectral width, and field of view not only guide us to design the microscopic system demonstrated in this article, but also clearly demonstrate the general design considerations necessary when applying an ASIL in fluorescence microscopy. Based on the simulation results, we develop wide-field high-resolution solid immersion fluorescence (SIF) microscopy employing an ASIL with an effective numerical aperture (NA) of 1.85. We demonstrate wide-field, high-resolution imaging of synthetic and biological samples with our SIF system. In the presence of a gap between the ASIL and the sample, we experimentally demonstrate that the effective NA of the SIF system is determined by the refractive index of the gap medium in addition to that of the ASIL material; thus, in general, degrading the resolution. Future developments of the SIF system to suit routine use and make it achieve still higher resolution by combining SIF and other microscopic techniques are proposed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy
(350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: July 29, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 4, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 4, 2010
Published: October 29, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Lin Wang, Mark C. Pitter, and Michael G. Somekh, "Wide-field high-resolution solid immersion fluorescence microscopy applying an aplanatic solid immersion lens," Appl. Opt. 49, 6160-6169 (2010)

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