OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 2010
  • pp: 6201–6206

Active optics null test system based on a liquid crystal programmable spatial light modulator

Miguel Ares, Santiago Royo, Irina Sergievskaya, and Jordi Riu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 32, pp. 6201-6206 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (610 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present an active null test system adapted to test lenses and wavefronts with complex shapes and strong local deformations. This system provides greater flexibility than conventional static null tests that match only a precisely positioned, individual wavefront. The system is based on a cylindrical Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, a commercial liquid crystal programmable phase modulator (PPM), which acts as the active null corrector, enabling the compensation of large strokes with high fidelity in a single iteration, and a spatial filter to remove unmodulated light when steep phase changes are compensated. We have evaluated the PPM’s phase response at 635 nm and checked its performance by measuring its capability to generate different amounts of defocus aberration, finding root mean squared errors below λ / 18 for spherical wavefronts with peak-to-valley heights of up to 78.7 λ , which stands as the limit from which diffractive artifacts created by the PPM have been found to be critical under no spatial filtering. Results of a null test for a complex lens (an ophthalmic customized progressive addition lens) are presented and discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: August 2, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2010
Published: November 2, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Miguel Ares, Santiago Royo, Irina Sergievskaya, and Jordi Riu, "Active optics null test system based on a liquid crystal programmable spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 49, 6201-6206 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. J. Tremblay, R. A. Stack, R. L. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, “Ultrathin cameras using annular folded optics,” Appl. Opt. 46, 463–471 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Meister and R. Fisher, “Progress in the spectacle correction of presbyopia. Part 2: modern progressive lens technologies,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91, 251–264 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing,3rd ed., D.Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007). [CrossRef]
  4. H. J. Tiziani, S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, M. Rocktaschel, and U. Hofbauer, “Testing of aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4440, 109–119 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15–19(2004). [CrossRef]
  7. P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 12, 4059–4071(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. T. Gruneisen, M. B. Garvin, R. C. Dymale, and J. R. Rotge, “Mosaic imaging with spatial light modulator technology,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7211–7223 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. H. Li, N. Mukohzaka, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “Phase modulation characteristics analysis of optically-addressed parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal phase-only spatial light modulator combined with a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Rev. 5, 174–178(1998). [CrossRef]
  10. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 11013–11025 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Malacara and A. Cornejo, “Null Ronchi test for aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1778–1780 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Ares, S. Royo, and J. Caum, “Shack–Hartmann sensor based on a cylindrical microlens array,” Opt. Lett. 32, 769–771 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2007).
  14. M. T. Gruneisen, L. F. DeSandre, J. R. Rotge, R. C. Dymale, and D. L. Lubin, “Programmable diffractive optics for wide-dynamic-range wavefront control using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1387–1393 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Neal, D. J. Armstrong, and W. T. Turner, “Wavefront sensors for control and process monitoring in optics manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 2993, 211–220 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and S. Nakai, “Shack–Hartmann wave-front measurement with a large F-number plastic microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 35, 188–192(1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited