OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 35 — Dec. 10, 2010
  • pp: 6808–6815

Real-time heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor

Akira Kimachi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 35, pp. 6808-6815 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1626 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A real-time method for heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor (CIS) is proposed. The CIS demodulates the interference phase of heterodyned speckle wavefronts pixelwise at an ordinary video frame rate. The proposed method neither suffers loss of spatial resolution nor requires a high frame rate. Interferometers for out-of-plane and in-plane deformation are developed with a 200 × 200 pixel CIS camera. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method realizes real-time imaging of a rough-surfaced object under deformation. The average standard deviations of demodulated phase-difference images for the out-of-plane and in-plane interferometers are 0.33 and 0.13 rad , respectively.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.2840) Detectors : Heterodyne
(100.2550) Image processing : Focal-plane-array image processors
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(100.3175) Image processing : Interferometric imaging
(120.6165) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Speckle interferometry, metrology

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: August 31, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 18, 2010
Published: December 9, 2010

Akira Kimachi, "Real-time heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor," Appl. Opt. 49, 6808-6815 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1989).
  2. R.S.Sirohi, ed., Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, 1993).
  3. P.K.Rastogi, ed., Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques (Wiley, 2001).
  4. J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi and Q. Ping, “Automatic deformation analysis by a TV speckle interferometer using a laser diode,” Appl. Opt. 32, 77–83 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Creath, “Phase-shifting speckle interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3053–3058 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Takeda and H. Yamamoto, “Fourier-transform speckle profilometry: three-dimensional shape measurements of diffuse objects with large height steps and/or spatially isolated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7829–7837 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Wu, J. D. C. Jones, and A. J. Moore, “High-speed phase-stepped digital speckle pattern interferometry using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5845–5855 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Haible, M. P. Kothiyal, and H. J. Tiziani, “Heterodyne temporal speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 114–117 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. M. V. Aguanno, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, “Heterodyne speckle interferometer for full-field velocity profile measurements of a vibrating membrane by electronic scanning,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 677–683 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Bruno and A. Poggialini, “Phase shifting speckle interferometry for dynamic phenomena,” Opt. Express 16, 4665–4670(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. North-Morris, J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, and B. Saif, “Dynamic phase-shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58691B (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kiire, S. Nakadate, and M. Shibuya, “Simultaneous formation of four fringes by using a polarization quadrature phase-shifting interferometer with wave plates and a diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4787–4792 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Ando and A. Kimachi, “Correlation image sensor: two-dimensional matched detection of amplitude-modulated light,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 2059–2066(2003). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Kimachi, “Real-time heterodyne imaging interferometry: focal-plane amplitude and phase demodulation using a three-phase correlation image sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46, 87–94(2007). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Ando, S. Ozaki, and A. Kimachi, “Active acousto-holographic imaging system with heterodyne interferometry and correlation image sensor,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration, 2008), pp. 682–689.
  16. S. Ando, S. Sato, and T. Kurihara, “Real-time tracking experiment of higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian beam for remote six-axis deformation sensing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (IEEE, 2009), pp. 106–109.
  17. A. Kimachi, “Real-time phase demodulation of heterodyne speckle interference patterns using correlation image sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 779007 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Kimachi and S. Ando, “Real-time phase-stamp range finder using correlation image sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1784–1792(2009). [CrossRef]
  19. K. J. Gåsvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited