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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2010
  • pp: 964–975

Simulation and control of narcissus phenomenon using nonsequential ray tracing. I. Staring camera in 3 5 μm waveband

M. Nadeem Akram  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 6, pp. 964-975 (2010)

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A nonsequential ray tracing technique is used to simulate the narcissus phenomenon in infrared (IR) imaging cameras having cooled detectors. Imaging cameras based on two-dimensional focal plane array detectors are simulated. In a companion article, line-scan imaging cameras based on one-dimensional linear detector arrays are simulated. Diffractive phase surfaces commonly used in modern IR cameras are modeled including multiple diffraction orders in the narcissus retroreflection path to correctly simulate the stray light return signal. Practical optical design examples along with their performance curves are given to elucidate the modeling technique. Optical methods to minimize the narcissus return signal are thoroughly explained, and modeling results are presented. It is shown that the nonsequential ray tracing technique is an effective method to accurately calculate the narcissus return signal in complex IR cameras having diffractive surfaces.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
(290.2648) Scattering : Stray light
(290.2745) Scattering : Ghost reflections

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: November 24, 2009
Revised Manuscript: January 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 20, 2010
Published: February 12, 2010

M. Nadeem Akram, "Simulation and control of narcissus phenomenon using nonsequential ray tracing. I. Staring camera in 3-5 μm waveband," Appl. Opt. 49, 964-975 (2010)

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