A survey of crystalline solid lasers is presented. Crystalline host materials are described, pointing out their characteristics pertinent for laser systems. Rare earth and transition metal impurities operated as lasers are tabulated and the role of sensitization in increasing the overall efficiency of laser systems is described. Characteristics of operating CW lasers are given, and some applications and research directions are suggested.
Z. J. KISS and R. J. PRESSLEY, "Crystalline Solid Lasers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1474-1486 (1966)