OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 5, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 1966
  • pp: 1514–1528

Semiconductor Lasers

Marshall I. Nathan  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 10, pp. 1514-1528 (1966)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.5.001514


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2205 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

This paper is a review of semiconductor laser work. The principles of operation are discussed. The stress is on work since early 1964. The present state-of-the-art in GaAs junction lasers is described.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: June 24, 1966
Published: October 1, 1966

Citation
Marshall I. Nathan, "Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1514-1528 (1966)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-5-10-1514


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962. [CrossRef]
  2. M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962. [CrossRef]
  3. T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962. [CrossRef]
  4. F. H. Nicol, “Ultraviolet ZnO laser pumped by an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 13–15, July1, 1966. [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient ultraviolet laser of ZnS by electron beam excitation,” presented at the 1966 Solid-State Device Research Conference, Northwestern, Chicago, Ill., also IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, to be published.
  6. J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964. [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication. [CrossRef]
  8. N. G. Basov, Discussion in “Advances in quantum electronics,” J. R. Singer, Ed., New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 506.
  9. N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).
  10. R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phivs. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 70–71, February1965. [CrossRef]
  11. N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).
  12. K. Weiser, J. F. Woods, “Evidence for avalanche injection laser in p-type GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 225–228, October1965. [CrossRef]
  13. G. Burns, M. I. Nathan, “P-Njunction lasers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 770–794, July1964. [CrossRef]
  14. Examples are given through [14]. R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Today, vol. 18, pp. 42–54, February1965. [CrossRef]
  15. B. Lax, “Progress in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 2, pp. 62–75, July1965. [CrossRef]
  16. F. Stern, “Stimulated emission in semiconductors,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Physics of III–V Compounds, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds., vol. 2. New York: Academic, 1966. [CrossRef]
  17. W. P. Dumke, “The injection laser,” in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.
  18. See for example, B. A. Lengyel, Lasers, Generation of Light by Stimulated Emission. New York: John Wiley, 1962.
  19. M. G. A. Bernard, G. Duraffourg, “Laser conditions in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 1, pp. 699–703, July1961. [CrossRef]
  20. G. J. Lasher, F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated line shapes in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A553–563, January1964. [CrossRef]
  21. F. Stern, “Effect of band tails on stimulated emission of light in semiconductors,” to be published.
  22. W. P. Dumke, “Interband transitions and maser action,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 1559–1563, September1962. [CrossRef]
  23. G. J. Lasher, “Threshold relations and diffraction loss for injection lasers,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 58–61, January1963. [CrossRef]
  24. M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964. [CrossRef]
  25. D. K. Wilson, “Stimulated emission of exciton recombination radiation in GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 127–129, October1963. [CrossRef]
  26. I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964. [CrossRef]
  27. K. Weiser, F. Stern, “Higher order transverse modes in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 115–116, September1964. [CrossRef]
  28. I. Melngailis, “Longitudinal injection-plasma laser in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 59–60, February1965. [CrossRef]
  29. C. Klein, “Laser action threshold in electron-beam excited GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–202, October1965. [CrossRef]
  30. C. Klein, “The excitation mechanism in electron beam pumped laser,” Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 424–434.
  31. I. Melngailis, “Optically pumped indium arsenide laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 104–105, May1965. [CrossRef]
  32. N. G. Basov, “Quantum oscillator and amplifier investigations,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 411.
  33. N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.
  34. V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.
  35. N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.
  36. N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.
  37. D. A. Cusano, “Radiative recombination from GaAs directly excited by fast electrons,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 353–358, 1964. [CrossRef]
  38. R. J. Pelan, “Laser emission by optical pumping of semiconductors,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 435–441.
  39. B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966. [CrossRef]
  40. N. Holonyak, S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1−xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82–83, December1962. [CrossRef]
  41. I. Melngailis, “Maser action in InAs diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 176–178, May1963. [CrossRef]
  42. K. Weiser, R. S. Levitt, “Stimulated light emission from indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 178–179, May1963. [CrossRef]
  43. I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963. [CrossRef]
  44. F. B. Alexander et al., “Spontaneous and stimulated infrared emission from indium phosphide arsenide diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 13–15, January1964. [CrossRef]
  45. R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963. [CrossRef]
  46. C. Benoit a la Guillaume, P. Lavallard, “Laser effect in indium antimonide,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 1, pp. 148–150, November1963. [CrossRef]
  47. C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.
  48. R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.
  49. C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’arseniure d’ indium par bombardment electronique,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 145–146, 1964. [CrossRef]
  50. C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’antimoniure de gallium par bombardment electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 259, pp. 2200–2206, October1964.
  51. C. E. Hurwitz, R. J. Keyes, “Electron-beam-pumped GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 139–141, October1964. [CrossRef]
  52. I. Melngailis, R. H. Rediker, “Properties of InAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 899–911, February1966. [CrossRef]
  53. J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964. [CrossRef]
  54. C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965. [CrossRef]
  55. J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “PbS diode laser,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 54, pp. 1056–1057, October1965. [CrossRef]
  56. K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.
  57. J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “Magnetoemission studies of PbS, PbTe, and PbSe diode lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
  58. J. F. Butler, “Diffused junction diodes of PbSe and PbTe,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 111, pp. 1150–1154, October1964. [CrossRef]
  59. C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Emission spontanee et stimulee du tellure par bombardment electrique,” Solid-State Communication, vol. 3, pp. 19–20, 1965. [CrossRef]
  60. C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effet laser dans le sulfure de cadmium par bombardemet electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 261, pp. 5428–5430, 1965.
  61. V. S. Vauilov, E. L. Nolle, “Cadmium telluride laser with electron excitation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 164, pp. 73–74, September, 1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 827–838, March1966).
  62. C. E. Hurwitz, “Electron beam pumped laser of CdSe and CdS,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 121–124, March1966. [CrossRef]
  63. C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient visible lasers of Cd(SxSe1−x) by electron beam excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 243–245, May15, 1966. [CrossRef]
  64. N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).
  65. J. J. Tietjen, S. A. Ochs, “Improved performance of Ga(As1−xPx) laser diodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 180–181, February1965. [CrossRef]
  66. R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965. [CrossRef]
  67. I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Spontaneous and coherent photoluminesce in CdxHg1−xTe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett., to be published.
  68. J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966. [CrossRef]
  69. J. C. Marinace, “Diffused junctions in GaAs injection lasers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 110, pp. 1153–1159, November1963. [CrossRef]
  70. M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Diffusion problems related to GaAs injection lasers,” Trans. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 296–300, March1964.
  71. R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 405–416, September1963. [CrossRef]
  72. G. H. Schwuttke, H. S. Rupprecht, “X-ray analysis of diffusion induced defects in gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 167–173, January1966. [CrossRef]
  73. H. Nelson, “Epitaxial growth from the liquid state and its application to the fabrication of tunnel and laser diodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 24, p. 603, December1963.
  74. N. N. Winogradoff, H. K. Kessler, “Light emission and electrical characteristics of epitaxial GaAs lasers and tunnel diodes,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 119–121, 1964. [CrossRef]
  75. M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “A relation between the current density at threshold and the length of Fabry-Perot type GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1243–1244, September1963; and “Light emission from GaAsxP1−xdiodes,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 282–286, March1964. [CrossRef]
  76. S. V. Galginaitis, “Efficiency measurements of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 295–298, February1964. [CrossRef]
  77. H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966. [CrossRef]
  78. M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963. [CrossRef]
  79. F. Stern, “Radiation confinement in semiconductor lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 165–170.
  80. G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963. [CrossRef]
  81. M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Influence of temperature on radiative recombination in GaAs p-njunction lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 195–199.
  82. J. I. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission spectrum and threshold current GaAs lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 201–204.
  83. G. C. Dousmanis, H. Nelson, “Temperature dependence of threshold current in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 174–176, November1964. [CrossRef]
  84. A. Kawaji, “Some properties of junction triode laser,” J. Appl. Phys. (Japan), vol. 3, pp. 425–426, 1964. [CrossRef]
  85. M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965. [CrossRef]
  86. C. E. Kelly, “Interactions between closely coupled GaAs injection lasers,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 1–4, January1965. [CrossRef]
  87. N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).
  88. D. E. Hill, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3405–3409, November1965. [CrossRef]
  89. M. Cliftan, P. P. Debeye, “On the parameters which affect the CW output of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 120–122, March1965. [CrossRef]
  90. W. E. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Characteristics of a continuous high-power GaAs junction laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1734–1741, June1964. [CrossRef]
  91. J. C. Marinace, “High power CW operation of GaAs injection lasers at 77°K,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 543–544, November1964. [CrossRef]
  92. S. Mayburg, “Temperature limitation on continuous operation of GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 3417–3418, November1963. [CrossRef]
  93. G. J. Lasher, W. V. Smith, “Thermal limitation of the energy of single injection laser light pulse,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 532–536, November1964. [CrossRef]
  94. W. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Thermal characteristics of GaAs laser junctions under high power pulsed conditions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 585–604, 1965. [CrossRef]
  95. R. W. Keyes, “Thermal problems of the injection laser,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 9, pp. 303–314, March1965. [CrossRef]
  96. J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966. [CrossRef]
  97. J. C. Marinace, private communication.
  98. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical emission in fluorescent solids I theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev., vol. 123, pp. 1145–1150, August1961. [CrossRef]
  99. J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuations in GaAs laser emission,” Phys. Rev., vol. 140, pp. A155–164, October1965. [CrossRef]
  100. A. W. Smith, J. A. Armstrong, “Intensity noise in multimode GaAs laser emission,” IBM J. Research and Develop., to be published.
  101. P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963. [CrossRef]
  102. G. E. Fenner, private communication.
  103. M. D. Sturge, “Optical absorption of gallium arsenide between 0.6 and 2.75 ev,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 768–773, August1962. [CrossRef]
  104. J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 196–198, June1964. [CrossRef]
  105. W. E. Ahearn, J. W. Crowe, “Linewidth measurements of CW gallium arsenide lasers at 77°K,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvi, April1966.
  106. R. O. Carlson, T. J. Soltys, “Low threshold room temperature GaAs laser diodes,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 10, p. 607, June1965.
  107. J. W. Crowe, private communication.
  108. H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964. [CrossRef]
  109. H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965. [CrossRef]
  110. K. G. Hambleton, F. E. Birbeck, “Design of a compact 100 watt gallium arsenide laser transmitter,” SERL Tech. J., vol. 15, pp. 111–114, February1965.
  111. K. Niebuhr, private communication.
  112. C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964. [CrossRef]
  113. K. Konnerth, C. Lanza, “Delay between current pulse and light emission of a gallium arsenide injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 120–121, April1964. [CrossRef]
  114. K. Konnerth, “Turn on delay in GaAs in GaAs injection lasers operated at room temperature,” to be published.
  115. B. S. Goldstein, R. M. Wiegand, “X-band modulation of GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 195, February1965. [CrossRef]
  116. J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963. [CrossRef]
  117. M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963. [CrossRef]
  118. F. M. Ryan, R. C. Miller, “The effect of uniaxial strain on the threshold current and output of GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 162–163, November1963. [CrossRef]
  119. D. Mayerhofer, R. Braunstein, “Frequency tuning of GaAs laser diode by uniaxial stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 171–172, November1963. [CrossRef]
  120. J. E. Ripper, G. W. Pratt, “Direct frequency modulation of semiconductor laser by ultrasonic waves,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lxvi–lxvii, April1966.
  121. G. E. Fenner, “Internal frequency modulation of GaAs junction lasers by changing the index of refraction through electron injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 198–199, November1965. [CrossRef]
  122. I. Mengailis, R. H. Rediker, “Magnetically tunable CW InAs diode maser,” Appl Phis. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 202–204, June1963. [CrossRef]
  123. W. V. Smith, “Computer applications of lasers,” this issue.
  124. A. B. Fowler, “Quenching of gallium arsenide injection lasers,” Appl. Phlys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 1–3, July1963. [CrossRef]
  125. G. J. Lasher, “Analysis of a proposed bistable injection laser,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 707–716, 1964. [CrossRef]
  126. M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.
  127. J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “Small-signal amplification in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 57–58, February1964. [CrossRef]
  128. J. W. Crowe, W. E. Ahearn, “Gallium arsenide laser diode amplifier,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvii, April1966.
  129. Examples are given in the next three references.
  130. B. A. Boershig, “A light-modulated data link,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. BC-10, pp. 4–7, February1964. [CrossRef]
  131. E. J. Chatterton, “Semiconductor laser communication through multiple-scatter paths,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2114–2115, December1965. [CrossRef]
  132. E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited