OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 5, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 1966
  • pp: 1538–1549

Optical Transmission Research

S. E. Miller and L. C. Tillotson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 10, pp. 1538-1549 (1966)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1858 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The availability of coherent sources producing usable amounts of power in the optical frequency range has stimulated considerable research in optical communications. Devices such as oscillators, modulators, detectors, and ancillary apparatus having desirable characteristics exist and are being used to design and build prototype terminals. Two possible media are being studied and means are being sought to improve their performance. They are 1) through-the-atmosphere propagation and 2) enclosed media with appropriate focusing and directing elements. Experimental optical transmission systems can readily be assembled with information capacities in a single RF channel comparable to those of microwave radio or millimeter waveguide. Such optical systems are not yet competitive for high reliability common carrier service because 1) long-distance transmission techniques of adequate reliability have not yet been advanced, and 2) optical repeater components are not yet competitive with their lower frequency counterparts. Some features characteristic of optical transmission systems are reviewed in this paper, along with a brief indication of the state-of-the-art for major components.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 8, 1966
Published: October 1, 1966

S. E. Miller and L. C. Tillotson, "Optical Transmission Research," Appl. Opt. 5, 1538-1549 (1966)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Proposed by A. G. Fox and realized by P. W. Smith, “Stabilized single-frequency output from a long laser cavity,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 343–348, November1965.
  2. W. H. Steier, “Coupling of high peak power pulses from He-Ne lasers,” Proc. IEEE, to be submitted.
  3. I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, “Electrooptic light modulator,” this issue.
  4. O. E. DeLange, unpublished.
  5. E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electrooptic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 42, pp. 155–179, January1963.
  6. J. T. Ruscio, “A coherent light modulator,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 182–183, July1965. [CrossRef]
  7. H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, “Single sideband modulation of coherent light by Bragg reflection from acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1246, September1963. [CrossRef]
  8. F. K. Reinhart, “Light modulation by the electrooptic effect in reverse biased gallium phosphide PN junctions,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 5, pp. 148–150, 1964. [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Hogg, “Effect of the troposphere on the propagation of coherent optical waves,” presented at the 1965 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Washington, D. C.
  10. D. C. Hogg, “On the spectrum of optical waves propagated through the atmosphere,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 42, p. 2967, November1963.
  11. R. E. Hufnagel, N. R. Stanley, “Modulation transfer function associated with image transmission through turbulent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 54, pp. 52–61, January1964. [CrossRef]
  12. D. M. Chase, “Power loss in propagation through a turbulent medium for an optical-heterodyne system with angle tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, pp. 33–40, January1966. [CrossRef]
  13. I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, A. Chabot, “Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1172–1180, September1965. [CrossRef]
  14. T. S. Chu, “Attenuation of laser beams by precipitation in the atmosphere,” presented at the 1966 URSI Spring Meeting, Washington, D. C.
  15. D. C. Hogg, “Scattering and attenuation due to snow at optical wavelengths,” Nature, vol. 203, p. 396, July25, 1964. [CrossRef]
  16. L. U. Kibler, unpublished.
  17. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Ray propagation in beam waveguides with redirectors,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 45, pp. 105–114, January1966.
  18. S. E. Miller, “Directional control in light-wave guidance,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, Part 2, pp. 1727–1739, July1964.
  19. Lens guidance of electromagnetic waves was first proposed by G. Goubau for millimeter waves. See G. Goubau, F. Schwering, “On the guided propagation of electromagnetic wave beams,” IRE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-9, pp. 248–256, May1961. [CrossRef]
  20. A. G. Fox, T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 453–488, March1961.
  21. G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multimode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961.
  22. For a large bibliography see H. J. Kogelnik, “Modes in optical resonators,” in Advances in Lasers. New York: Dekker, 1966.
  23. D. Marcuse, S. E. Miller, “Analysis of tubular gas lens,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1759–1782, July1964.
  24. D. Marcuse, “Theory of a thermal gradient gas lens,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-13, pp. 734–739, November1965. [CrossRef]
  25. D. Marcuse, “Properties of periodic gas lenses,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, pp. 2083–2116, November1965.
  26. D. Marcuse, “Comparison between a gas lens and its equivalent thin lens,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., to be published.
  27. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Modes in a sequence of thick astigmatic lens-like focusers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 2887–2904, November1964.
  28. S. E. Miller, “Alternating gradient focusing and related properties of conventional convergent lens focusing,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, Part 2, pp. 1741–1758, July1964.
  29. D. W. Berreman, “A lens of light guide using convectively disstorted thermal gradient in gases,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1469–1475, July1964.
  30. A. C. Beck, “Thermal gas lens measurements,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1818–1820, July1964.
  31. A. C. Beck, “Gas mixture lens measurements,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1821–1825, July1964.
  32. W. H. Steier, “Some characteristics of alternating gradient optical transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-4, pp. 228–233, May1966. [CrossRef]
  33. W. H. Steier, “Measurement on a thermal gradient gas lens,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-13, pp. 740–748, November1965. [CrossRef]
  34. J. Hirano, Y. Fukatsu, “Stability of a light beam in a beam waveguide,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 1284–1292, November1964. [CrossRef]
  35. D. Marcuse, “Probability of ray position in beam waveguides,” to be published.
  36. D. Marcuse, “Statistical treatment of light-ray propagation in beam-waveguides,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, pp. 2065–2081, November1965.
  37. D. Marcuse, “Propagation of light rays through a lens-waveguide with curved axis,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 741–753, March1964.
  38. W. H. Steier, “Statistical effects of random variations in the components of a beam waveguide,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 54, pp. 451–471, March1966.
  39. S. E. Miller, “Light propagation in generalized lens-like media,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, pp. 2017–2063, November1965.
  40. D. Marcuse, “Deformation of fields propagating through gas lenses,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., to be published.
  41. E. A. J. Marcatili, to be published.
  42. J. P. Gordon, “Optics of general guiding media,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 45, pp. 321–331, February1966.
  43. R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965. [CrossRef]
  44. R. P. Riesz, “High-speed semiconductor photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 33, pp. 994–998, September1962. [CrossRef]
  45. W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964. [CrossRef]
  46. M. V. Schneider, to be published.
  47. D. Marcuse, “Noise performance of light frequency receivers,” to be published.
  48. H. Heffner, “The fundamental noise limit of linear amplifiers,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1604–1608, July1962. [CrossRef]
  49. O. E. DeLange, unpublished.
  50. A good survey with many references is J. R. Meyer-Arendt, C. B. Emmanuel, “Optical scintillation: A survey of the literature,” U. S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo., NBS Tech. Note 225, April5, 1965.
  51. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
  52. L. A. Chernov, Wave Propagation in a Random Medium. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.
  53. H. A. Gebbie et al., “Atmospheric transmission in the 1 to 14 μregion,” Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 206, p. 87, 1951. [CrossRef]
  54. J. H. Taylor, H. W. Yates, “Atmospheric transmission in infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., p. 225, March1957.
  55. S. W. Kurnick, R. N. Zitter, B. D. Williams, “Attenuation of infrared radiation by fog,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 50, pp. 578–583, June1960. [CrossRef]
  56. A. Arnulf et al.., “Transmission by haze and fog in the spectral region 0.35 to 10 microns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 47, pp. 491–498, June1957. [CrossRef]
  57. L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965. [CrossRef]
  58. H. Melchior, W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, to be published.
  59. E. I. Gordon, “A review of acoustooptical deflection and modulation devices,” this issue.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited