This paper is intended as a status report on high-speed detectors for the visible and near-infrared portion of the optical spectrum. Both vacuum and solid-state detectors are discussed, with the emphasis on those devices which can be used as direct (noncoherent) detectors of weak optical signals modulated at microwave frequencies. The best detectors for this application have internal current gain and in this regard the relevant properties and limitations of high-frequency secondary emission multiplication in vacuum tube devices and avalanche multiplication in p-n junctions are summarized.
L. K. ANDERSON and B. J. McMURTRY, "High-Speed Photodetectors," Appl. Opt. 5, 1573-1587 (1966)