OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1364–1373

Diffraction efficiency of 200-nm-period critical-angle transmission gratings in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelength bands

Ralf K. Heilmann, Minseung Ahn, Alex Bruccoleri, Chih-Hao Chang, Eric M. Gullikson, Pran Mukherjee, and Mark L. Schattenburg  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 10, pp. 1364-1373 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.001364


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1072 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report on measurements of the diffraction efficiency of 200 - nm -period freestanding blazed transmission gratings for wavelengths in the 0.96 to 19.4 nm range. These critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings achieve highly efficient blazing over a broad band via total external reflection off the sidewalls of smooth, tens of nanometer thin ultrahigh aspect-ratio silicon grating bars and thus combine the advantages of blazed x-ray reflection gratings with those of more conventional x-ray transmission gratings. Prototype gratings with maximum depths of 3.2 and 6 μm were investigated at two different blaze angles. In these initial CAT gratings the grating bars are monolithically connected to a cross support mesh that only leaves less than half of the grating area unobstructed. Because of our initial fabrication approach, the support mesh bars feature a strongly trapezoidal cross section that leads to varying CAT grating depths and partial absorption of diffracted orders. While theory predicts broadband absolute diffraction efficiencies as high as 60% for ideal CAT gratings without a support mesh, experimental results show efficiencies in the range of 50 100 % of theoretical predictions when taking the effects of the support mesh into account. Future minimization of the support mesh therefore promises broadband CAT grating absolute diffraction efficiencies of 50% or higher.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(300.6560) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, x-ray
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics
(260.6048) Physical optics : Soft x-rays

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: December 22, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 2011
Published: March 25, 2011

Citation
Ralf K. Heilmann, Minseung Ahn, Alex Bruccoleri, Chih-Hao Chang, Eric M. Gullikson, Pran Mukherjee, and Mark L. Schattenburg, "Diffraction efficiency of 200-nm-period critical-angle transmission gratings in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelength bands," Appl. Opt. 50, 1364-1373 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-10-1364

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Log in to access OSA Member Subscription

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Log in to access OSA Member Subscription

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Log in to access OSA Member Subscription

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Log in to access OSA Member Subscription

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited