OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1839–1842

Implementation of vibrational phase contrast coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

Martin Jurna, Jennifer L. Herek, and Herman L. Offerhaus  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 13, pp. 1839-1842 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (358 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Detection of molecules using vibrational resonances in the fingerprint region for narrowband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is challenging. The spectrum is highly congested resulting in a large background and a reduced specificity. Recently we introduced vibrational phase contrast CARS (VPC-CARS) microscopy as a technique capable of detecting both the amplitude and phase of the CARS signal, providing background-free images and high specificity. In this paper we present a new implementation of VPC-CARS based on a third-order cascaded phase-preserving chain, where the CARS signal is generated at a single (constant) wavelength independent of the vibrational frequency that is addressed. This implementation will simplify the detection side considerably.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
(300.6310) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, heterodyne

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: January 4, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 17, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 17, 2011
Published: April 22, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Martin Jurna, Jennifer L. Herek, and Herman L. Offerhaus, "Implementation of vibrational phase contrast coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Opt. 50, 1839-1842 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883–909 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Yoo, D. Lee, and H. Cho, “Differential two-signal picosecond-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging microscopy by using a dualmode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3254–3256 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Ganikhanov, C. Evans, B. Saar, and X. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1872–1874 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Marowsky and G. Lüpke, “CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Potma, C. Evans, and X. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 241–243 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals,” Opt. Express 15, 15207–15213 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Background-free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS,” Opt. Express 16, 15863–15869(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505–1507 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Voroshilov, C. Otto, and J. Greve, “Secondary structure of bovine albumin as studied by polarization-sensitive multiplex CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 78–85 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Cheng, L. Book, and X. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1341–1343 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Jurna, J. Korterik, C. Otto, J. Herek, and H. Offerhaus, “Vibrational phase contrast microscopy by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905(2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Jurna, E. T. Garbacik, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Visualizing resonances in the complex plane with vibrational phase contrast coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 82, 7656–7659 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Chen, “Rejection of background light using single-wavelength detection in nonlinear Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 376–379 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. Cheng, “Characterization of photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 3942–3951 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Balu, T. Baldacchini, J. Carter, T. Krasieva, R. Zadoyan, and B. Tromberg, “Effect of excitation wavelength on penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 010508 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited